Viva Questions & Answers on Fabric Manufacturing Technology
B.J.Group, Mawna, Gazipur
Chittagong Textile Engineering College
In fabric manufacturing technology, three types of fabrics are produced. They are woven, knitted and nonwoven. It is a complex and ancient process for making cloth. In this article various types of viva questions and answers of fabric manufacturing technology are given. Those will be helpful for students, teachers and job seekers.
Terms of Fabric Manufacturing Technology:
1. What is fabric?
Ans: Interlacement of two or more thread of yarn.
2. Categories of woven fabric structure.
Ans: Simple structure, Complex structure.
3. What is construction of fabric?
Ans: Warp count X Weft count/EPI X PPI X Fabric width.
4. What is texture?
Ans: Quality of fabric such as handle properties, shining properties, draping properties.
5. Texture depend on which mater?
Ans: Yarn count, EPI, PPI, Yarn twist, Interlacement etc.
6. What is contact field?
Ans: Contact points between warp & weft yarn at right angle. (RNwa*RNwe)
7. What is interlacing field?
Ans: The points where a yarn of one system of threads changes its position in relation to other system.
8. What is free field?
Ans: The zone where the warp & weft yarn do not touch & change fabric side.
9. What is open field?
Ans: Zone where warp nor weft thread occurs.
10. What is interlacing ratio?
Ans: Ratio between actual no of interlacing & maximum no of interlacing.
11. What is Degree of interlacing?
Ans: When interlacing ratio is expressed as percentage.
12. What is repeat number?
Ans: No of warp & weft yarns in a fabric.
13. What is drafting?
Ans: Drawing process of warp yarn through heald eye according to the plan or design.
14. What is lifting plan?
Ans: Selection of healds to be lifted or lowered.
15. What is denting plan?
Ans: Process of inserting warp yarn through reed.
16. What is skip Draft?
Ans: To make fabric with high density of warp yarn.
17. What is pointed draft?
Ans: Used to produce fabric with symmetrical design.
18. How divided draft is produce?
Ans: By dividing the heald shafts into two or more groups.
19. Why grouped draft is needed?
Ans: To producing check & strip fabric.
20. Finer yarn used as where?
Ans: As warp.
21. Coarser yarn used as where?
Ans: As weft.
22. What is twill weave?
Ans: The weave is characterized by diagonal lines of warp & weft floats on the face of the fabric on both sides.
23. Some types of twil.
Ans: Zig-zag, Herring bone, Diamond, Broken, Rearrange, Stepped, Elongated, Shadded, Combined twill etc.
24. Direction of horizontal zig-zag twill.
Ans: Upon the warp yarn.
25. Is pointed draft found in horizontal zig-zag twill.
26. Direction of vertical zig-zag twill.
Ans: Upon the weft yarn.
27. Is vertical zig-zag twill made from any complicated continuous twill?
28. Herring bone twill.
Ans: Produced by reversal of twill direction.
29. Warp yarn is double in the no of weft yarn.
Ans: In Horizontal Herring bone twill.
30. Weft yarn is double in the no of warp yarn.
Ans: In Vertical Herring bone twill.
31. What is elongated twill?
Ans: Twill angle is less or more than 45-degree respect to horizontal or vertical axis.
32. Warp way elongated twill runs …
Ans: Around 45-degree angle.
33. Weft way elongated twill runs …
Ans: Bellow 45-degree angle.
34. Twill line of course & soft twisted yarn…
Ans: More prominent.
35. Twill line of fine & hard twisted yarn is…
Ans: Less prominent.
36. Twill line of folded yarn is…
Ans: More prominent.
37. Twill line of single yarn is…
Ans: Less prominent.
38. Define the warp satin.
Ans: If the prominence of warp floating is seen on the fabric surface.
39. Define the weft satin.
Ans: If the prominence of warp floating is seen on the fabric surface.
40. Show the types of fancy fabric.
Ans: Mock leno, Hucka back, Honey comb, Crepe weave, Bed cord, Pique.
41. What is Albert cloth?
Ans: A reversible cloth or self-stitched double cloth overcoating, woven with a different design on each side in stripe or check.
42. What is alpaca fabric?
Ans: A fabric made from alpaca fabric.
43. What is Amazon cloth?
Ans: A light weight dress fabric with a full, soft handle made from worsted yarns as warp & soft spun worsted or woolen yarn as weft.
44. What is angora fabric?
Ans: A fabric woven from angora yarn.
45. What is Back beam?
Ans: A beam from which the warp is fed during sizing.
46. What is Back rest?
Ans: The roller at the back of a loom over which the warp threads from the beam pass.
47. Define the back felling?
Ans: The application of a feeling material to the back of a fabric.
48. What is balanced weave?
Ans: A weave in which the float of is the same in the warp & weft direction.
49. What is tension bar?
Ans: A bar composed of a weft yarn that has been stretched more or less than normal weft point during weaving.
50. What is bastard reed?
Ans: A reed in which dent space at each side is slightly greater than in the center.
51. What is flat bed?
Ans: A bed which provides a flat surface in a same pane as the table in which it is mounted.
52. What is Brocade?
Ans: A woven, patterned fabric using multi-colored threads
53. What is Damask?
Ans: It is similar to brocade but is finer, thiner. A woven, patterned fabric, using all one color – think fancy white cloth napkins. Usually silk, linen, cotton, rayon or synthetic blends.
54. What is voile?
Ans: Soft fine sheer fabric.
55. What is worsted?
Ans: Fine closely-woven wool.
56. What is Velvet?
Ans: Rich looking fabric with a thick pile (ie woven w/ lots of threads sticking up.)
57. What is Embossed velvet?
Ans: Design is normally heat pressed or chemically press to flatten some of the pile
58. What is cloth?
Ans: Cloth or fabric is a flexible artificial material made up of a network of natural or artificial fibres (thread or yarn) formed by weaving or knitting (textiles, or pressed into felt.)
59. What is knitting?
Ans: By transferring continuous strands of yarns into interlocking loops.
60. What are the basic structure of weft knitted fabric?
- plain or single jersey.
- rib structure.
- 1*1 purl structure.
- 1*1 interlock structure.
61. Which elements are fabric raw material?
Ans: Yarn, fiber, filament, solution.
62. What is cam?
Ans: Cam is a mechanical device which transfer the rotory or circular motion of a m/c parts or shaft to the linear motion.
63. What are the types of cam?
- a) engineering cam -> circular cam
- b) Knitting cam -> angular cam
Angular cam: i) Knit cam ii) Tuck cam iii) Miss cam
64. How many needles is used single jersey?
Ans: 1 set needle is used
65. How many needles is used double jersey?
Ans: 2 set needles are used
66. Define weft?
Ans: Yarn inlaid in a knitted structure in parallel to a course is called weft.
67. What is Fillar?
Ans: Yarn inlaid in a knitted structure in parallel to a wale is called fillar.
68. What is Curling?
Ans: The bending tendency of single jersey fabric.
69. What is Rib?
Ans: Fabric produce 2 set of needles alternately to produce course of face loop & wales of back loop is called rib?
70. Define Interlock?
Ans: Fabric produce by knitting 2 set of needle face two face thus hiding all back loops is called Interlock.
71. What is Lacra?
Ans: Polyurothin fibre, stetching fibre.
72. What is Gauge?
Ans: Needles /inch.
73. What is Needle peace?
Ans: Needle peace = 1 / NeedleGauge.
74. What are the basic element warp knitting?
b) sinker: i) loop formation ii) holding down iii) knock over
75. What are the main features of single jersey plain fabric?
Ans: i) technical face is smooth & v-shape is found & technical back is rough ii) produce by single set of needles iii) tendency of curling yarn.
76. What are the main features of rib structure?
Ans: i) Technical face & back is of same ii) it is normally knitted 2 set of needles iii) This type of fabric are not curling tendency.
77. What is tussah?
Ans: Brownish silk fabric.
78. Dedine temple?
Ans: A device used in weaving to hold the fabric at the fell as near as possible to the width of the warp in the reed.
79. Define tappet fabric?
Ans: Fabrics of simple weave structure that may be woven or a cam or tappet loon.
80. Define CPI?
Ans: Cpi means course per inch. It indicates the how many courses are present in one-inch length of the fabric.
81. How many types of fabric?
Ans: Woven, Knitted, Non-woven, Braid.
82. What is weaving?
Ans: By using two sets of yarn interlacing at right angle according to a design is called weaving.
83. Define warp?
Ans: The sets of yarn which is used along the length of the fabric is termed as warp.
84. Define weft?
Ans: The sets of yarn which is used across the width of the fabric is termed as weft.
85. Write down the process sequence of dyed fabric production?
Ans: Yarn preparation, weaving, furnishing
86. What is the basic principle elements of Knitting?
Ans: Principle elements of Knitting- needle, sinker, cam, jack, yarn feeder
87. What is needle?
Ans: The hooked metal needle is the main principle knitting element of the Knitting m/c
88. Write down the function of needle?
Ans: The function of needle is – New yarn receiving, Loop forming, Carry the old loop, Clearing the old loop.
89. Write down the types of needle?
Ans: Bearded Needle, Latch Needle, Compound Needle.
90. What is sinker?
Ans: It is the second primary knitting element. It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles.
91. What is yarn feeder?
Ans: Yarn feeder mainly used for feed the yarn from package to Needle by yarn tensioner, yarn guide etc.
92. What is needle gauge?
Ans: No of Needles Per unit Length (e.g. Needles/inch)
93. What is course?
Ans: Yarn inlaid horizontally with loop structure in a Knitting structure.
94. What is wale?
Ans: Yarn inlaid vertically with loop structure in a Knitting structure.
95. What is loop?
Ans: A piece of yarn used in knitted structure.
96. what is stitch?
Ans: Dimensionally stable structural unit of a knitted structure.
97. What is tuck loop?
Ans: When the needle receives new yarn but the old loop is not locked off in its regular course, it is known as Tuck loop.
Yarn Receiving + Not Clearing = Tuck loop.
98. What is miss loop?
Ans: When the needle neither receive new yarn nor allows the old loop to be inlaid without knitting is called miss loop.
Not Receiving + Not Clearing = Miss loop.
99. What is held loop?
Ans: An old knit loop which the needle has retained and not released & knocked-over at the next yarn feed.
100. What is drop stitch?
Ans: When the needle clears the old loop without receiving new yarn.
101. What are the basic motions of a loom?
Ans: Basic motions of a loom, Primary motion, Secondary motion, Tertiary motion.
102. What is degree of interlacing?
Ans: When interlacing ratio is expressed as % is called degree of interlacing.
103. What is weave plan?
Ans: The interlacement of warp and weft yarn, is called weave plan.
104. What is drafting plan?
Ans: The process of drawing the warp yarn into the heald eye according to the weave plan or design is called drafting plan.
105. What is denting plan?
Ans: The process of inserting warp yarn through reed is called denting plan.
106. What is tensioning device?
Ans: The Device which is used to give the proper tension during winding yarn onto the package is known as Tensioning Device. Otherwise High tension can damage the yarn whereas too low a tension can lead to unstable packages which will not unwind cleanly.
107. Which of the fabric is most suitable for summer?
108. Which of the following fabrics does not take stains easily?
109. Which of the following fabrics is a bad conductor?
110. Which fabric is made of staple fibre?
111. Which is the strongest fibre?
112. Which fabric has a dull surface?
113. Cotton is most desirable fabric for making undergarments because it is.
114. What is appliqué?
Ans: Embellishment on a garment where decoration is made by cutting pieces of one material and applying them to the surface of another.
115. What is bird’s Eye?
Ans: A fabric woven with a pattern of small diamonds.
116. What is chambray?
Ans: A class of yarn-dyed, plain-weave fabrics with a colored warp and white filling. Most often produced in soft blue tomes (looks like faded blue jean denim).
117. What is chenille?
Ans: Soft, fuzzy yarns stand out around a velvety cord on this fabric, whose name comes from the French word for “caterpillar.”
118. What is chintz fabric?
Ans: A printed and glazed fabric, usually cotton.
119. What is effect Thread?
Ans: Yarns inserted into a fabric, that are sufficiently different to the surrounding yarns, to form or enhance a pattern.
120. What is elastomer?
Ans: Any polymer showing rubber-like elastic properties. This includes Lycra and Spandex.
121. What is engineered print?
Ans: Also called a placed print because it is integrated into a specific area of the design. Border prints are often engineered into place.
122. What is facing?
Ans: A piece of fabric sewn to the inside of a garment for lining purposes or to add structure to the garment.
123. What is faille?
Ans: A dressy, flat-ribbed fabric with a light luster that drapes and tailors well. The ribs are flatter and less pronounced than in grosgrain. Traditionally used for women’s dresses, suits and coats.
124. What is feedstripe?
Ans: Knit fabric where a stripe pattern is produced by the way colored yarns are fed into the knitting machine. Also know as Yarn Dyed.
125. What is fleece?
Ans: This is a knit fabric, usually in cotton or poly cotton that has napped terry loops on one or both sides. There are several variations that and finish types for fleeces.
126. What is hopsack?
Ans: A loosely woven coarse fabric of cotton or wool used in clothing. Hop growers originally used the fabric for bags.
127. What is intarsia?
Ans: A flat knit fabric with solid-colored, geometric patterns. The sides of the fabric are identical.
128. What is interlock?
Ans: A type of cut and sew knit fabric that is characterized by the interconnecting of the knit stitches.
129. What is jacquard?
Ans: Elaborate woven or knitted pattern.
130. What is jersey?
Ans: A generic term for a plain knit fabric without a distinct rib. Originally made of wool, jersey fabric was first manufactured on the island of Jersey.
131. What is lycra?
Ans: DuPont’s registered trademark for its brand of elastic fiber. Same type of fiber as Spandex.
132. What is marled yarn?
Ans: Two single yarns of different colors twisted together. You see this mottled effect most often in sweaters.
133. What is matte jersey?
Ans: A dull, flat knit fabric made of fine crepe yarns. Most popular in travel and permanent press or easy-care dresses, slacks and skirts.
134. What is picot?
Ans: A small embroidered loop forming an ornamental edging on a ribbon or lace.
135. What is pinpoint oxford?
Ans: Lightweight, soft, cotton-like fabric with a small 2×1 basket (rib) weave repeats. High quality. Very smooth surface; used for shirts.
136. What is piqué?
Ans: A knitted cotton fabric with a waffle, or diamond-shaped, pattern. French piqué knits became an international favorite when René Lacoste, a 1920’s French tennis champion, designed the polo shirt. Also called Lacoste.
137. What is pointelle?
Ans: A basic ribknit made with a pattern of dainty openings. Typically, feminine.
138. What is poplin?
Ans: A durable, plain weave fabric similar to broadcloth but with a heavier rib and heavier weight. Made of silk, cotton, synthetic fibers, wool or blends.
139. What is ripstop?
Ans: A fabric woven with a double thread at regular intervals so that small tears do not spread.
140. What is rayon?
Ans: A manufactured natural fiber made from wood cellulose. It is soft, absorbent and drapes well. Also known as Viscose.
141. What is sateen?
Ans: A semi-lustrous surface distinguishes this smooth, durable fabric in a satin weave. Sateen is usually made of cotton.
142. What is seersucker?
Ans: A popular warm-weather cotton fabric with permanent woven crinkled stripes.
143. What is shot effect?
Ans: A color effect produced in fabrics woven with a warp yarn of one color and a weft yarn of a contrasting color.
144. What is terry?
Ans: A fabric with loop pile on one or both sides.
145. What is velour?
Ans: Soft plush fabric with a close, dense pile.
146. What is wicking?
Ans: Refers to a fabric’s tendency to disburse moisture rather than absorbing it.
147. What is weft Knits?
Ans: Weft is a type of knitting in which yarns run horizontally, from side to side, across the width of the fabric.
148. What is velvet?
Ans: A short, closely woven cut pile fabric with a rich, soft texture.
149. What is voile?
Ans: A lightweight, sheer fabric with a crisp, wiry hand.
150. What is acrylic?
Ans: A synthetic fabric.
151. What is Aertex?
Ans: A trademark for a loosely woven cotton fabric that is used to make shirts and underwear.
152. What is batik?
Ans: A dyed fabric; a removable wax is used where the dye is not wanted
153. What is broadcloth?
Ans: A closely woven silk or synthetic fabric with a narrow crosswise rib.
154. What is canvas or canvass?
Ans: A heavy, closely woven fabric (used for clothing or chairs sails or tents).
155. What is cashmere?
Ans: A soft fabric made from the wool of the Cashmere goat
156. What is cerecloth?
Ans: A waterproof waxed cloth once used as a shroud.
157. What is chenille?
Ans: A heavy fabric woven with chenille cord; used in rugs and bedspreads.
158. What is chino?
Ans: A coarse twilled cotton fabric frequently used for uniforms.
159. What is coating?
Ans: A heavy fabric suitable for coats.
160. What is corduroy or cord?
Ans: A cut pile fabric with vertical ribs; usually made of cotton.
161. What is crape or crepe?
Ans: A soft thin light fabric with a crinkled surface.
162. What is diaper?
Ans: A fabric (usually cotton or linen) with a distinctive woven pattern of small repeated figures
163. What is edging?
Ans: Border consisting of anything placed on the edge to finish something.
164. What is duck?
Ans: a heavy cotton fabric of plain weave; used for clothing and tents.
165. What is duffel or duffle?
Ans: A coarse heavy woolen fabric (such as a fringe on clothing or on a rug).
166. What is aba?
Ans: Garment of camel or goat hair; camel or goat-hair fabric.
167. What is alpaca?
Ans: Fine wool made from alpaca hair.
168. What is angora?
Ans: Silk-like fabric made from wool of angora goats.
169. What is bagging?
Ans: Coarse fabric for making bags or sacks.
170. What is baft?
Ans: Cheap coarse cotton fabric.
171. What is atlas?
Ans: Rich satin fabric.
172. What is bump?
Ans: Coarse cotton fabric.
173. What is calamanco?
Ans: Satin twilled woollen fabric.
174. What is camaca?
Ans: Fine silk fabric.
175. What is chambray?
Ans: Lightweight fabric with coloured warp and white filling.
176. What is chino?
Ans: Strong twilled cotton cloth.
177. What is crash?
Ans: Coarse drapery and towelling fabric.
178. What is dimity?
Ans: Sheer and stout white cotton.
179. What is delaine?
Ans: Light fabric of wool or mixed wool and cotton.
180. What is domett?
Ans: Plain cotton-wool blend.
181. What is drill?
Ans: Durable twilled cotton.
182. What is faille?
Ans: Shiny closely woven silk, cotton or rayon fabric.
183. What is foulard?
Ans: Soft lightweight plain-woven or twilled silk fabric.
184. What is flannel?
Ans: Light woollen fabric.
185. What is fuji?
Ans: Plain spun silk fabric.
Ans: Twilled fabric woven in rows of parallel sloping lines.
187. What is jacquard?
Ans: Intricately-woven variegated fabric; loom for making jacquard.
188. What is jean?
Ans: Durable twilled cotton material.
189. What is jersey?
Ans: Plain weft-knitted fabric of wool, cotton, nylon or silk.
190. What is lasting?
Ans: Sturdy cotton or worsted cloth.
191. What is melton?
Ans: Strong and smooth heavy woollen cloth.
192. What is muslin?
Ans: Plain-woven fine cotton.
193. What is ninon?
Ans: Silk voile or other thin fabric.
194. What is oxford?
Ans: Soft durable plain-woven cotton.
195. What is poplin?
Ans: Corded woven silk and worsted.
196. What is ramie?
Ans: Strong lustrous fabric resembling linen or silk.
197. What is rep?
Ans: Plain-woven fabric with crosswise ribs.
198. What is romal?
Ans: Handkerchief or headcloth; silk or cotton fabric.
199. What is toile?
Ans: Light/medium weight, plain weave, fine, cotton-type fabric, usually with one colored printed scenic design. Used mostly for home furnishings, clothing, etc.
200. How non-woven fabrics are made?
Ans: The non-woven fabrics are made by interlocking or bonding of fibers through mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means. Different types of fabric are used for nonwovens like wool, cotton, polyester, acrylic, etc.
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