What is Onium Dye | Application of Onium Dyes on Cotton Fabric

Last Updated on 20/06/2021

What is Onium Dye?
Onium dye is a cationic dye, which is soluble by sulphonium, phosphonium or oxonium substituent which splits off during fixation to leave an insoluble colorant in the fiber. They produce insoluble color on the fabric during fixation process. Generally onium dyes are applied on cotton and jute.

onium dyes

Properties of Onium Dyes:

  1. It is insoluble in water, but it can soluble by sulphonium, phosphonium or oxoinum substituent.
  2. It is a cationic dye.
  3. It produce insoluble color on the fabric during fixation process.
  4. It’s structure like as pigment, but it’s application like as dye.
  5. Onium pigment always applied on acidic condition at low temperature.

Trade or Commercial Name of Onium Dyes:

  1. Alcian Blue 8GS 300 [I.C.I – UK]
  2. Alcian Blue 8GX 300 [I.C.I – UK]
  3. Alcian Green 2GX [I.C.I – UK]
  4. Alcian Green 3BX [I.Q.I – UK]
  5. Alcian Yellow GXS [I.C.I -UK]

Classification of Dyeing Process of Onium Dyes:

  1. Phthalocymine.
  2. Anthraquinone.
  3. Azoic.

Application of Onium Dyes on Cotton Fabric (Continuous Dyeing Process):


  • Onium dye………………….x g/l (O.W.M.)
  • Acetic acid………………….15 g/l (O.W.M.)
  • Nonionic detergent (lissapol -N)…..1–5 g/l (O.W.M.)
  • Time ……………………1 hour
  • Temperature ………………….30—40oC.

Dyeing Procedure:

Grey fabric

Pretreatment of fabric

Padding solution preparation [Acetic acid + water+dye+detergent]

Padding [at 30-40oC]

Steaming [at 120oC about 3-4 minute for fixation]

Development [by using seven box open soaping system]

Dyed fabric

Stripping Process of Onium Dye:
For stripping, the materials is treated at 50-60oC temperature in a solution containing 2% sodium hydrosulphite (reducing agent) about 15 minute.

Uses of Onium Dyes:
It is generally use in cotton dyeing and printing process. It is also used in jute dyeing process.

Onium dye is a advance dye. We can also applied it on cotton fabric in batch dyeing process by using winch dyeing machine.

You may also like:

  1. Classification and Characteristics of Dyes | Commercial Name of Dyes
  2. Vegetable Dyes | Different Types of Vegetable Dye and Structure
  3. Chrome Dyes: Features and Chemical Classification
  4. Requirements of Dyes and Pigments and Their Differences

Share this Article!

Leave a Comment