There have been many improvements in the textile sector with the help of modern technology. There are thousands of types of clothes on the market today, of which fur fabric is one also. Fur fabric has occupied a place in the market as an aristocratic garment. Fur is usually collected from mammals, so the cost of this fabric is relatively high.
What is fur fabric?
The fabric obtained from long-haired animals is called fur fabric. The fur from which mammals are collected is not generally accepted as a by-product of the meat industry. In the case of fur, the meat of these animals is not usually eaten.
Types of fur fabric:
Animals are first killed directly to collect fur. There is a ban on killing animals freely. Those who produce fur are called ranchers. Those who catch animals are called trappers. They are called trappers because they catch animals with traps. These trappers or ranchers have to follow the law. By law fur is produced in a specified place. This law is relaxed in many countries and becomes difficult in many countries. Ranchers legally raise these animals and auction them off, while trappers illegally collect and sell fur. They trap animals.
Most fur is collected from mink animals. Mink was killed a few months ago because of corona in Netherlands. Many people thought that Corona was spreading from Mink. But this is a completely wrong idea. Fur is also collected from foxes. In addition, fur is collected from various species of animals such as Rabbit, Muskrat. At present fur is also collected from mongoose.
America produces the most fur. About 80% of the fur is produced here. The remaining 40% is produced in Canada and five Scandinavian countries (Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Finland). Fur is also produced in Russia.
Before processing the fur, the hair has to be divided into two parts. Two types of hair are found after collecting fur from animals. Those are:
- Guard hair
- Duved hair
1. Guard hair:
These hairs are relatively long, thick. And its position tends to be on the outside of the animal. In other words, the hair on the outside of the animal is called guard hair.
2. Duved hair:
These hairs are located on the inside of the animal. It tends to be much softer, denser and shorter.
Fur fabric manufacturing process:
Ranchers or trappers sell fur to processor companies. There are two steps or methods of fur processing.
- Preservation method
- Dressing method
1. Preservation method:
In this step of the manufacturing process, Fur has to be preserved. Fur is stored for a long time so that it does not rot due to infection by bacteria or anything else.
The preservation process again has many steps. Those are:
- Air dry
- Salt curing
- Brine curing
a. Air dry:
This is a common method. In this case the skin is dried by air. There are 3 methods of air dry. Those are:
- Grounddry: In this case the skin is dried on the ground.
- Framedry: It is dried by hanging on the frame.
- Wiredry: It is dried by hanging a thin cord or wire.
b. Salt curing:
Fur is preserved with dried salt so that bacteria do not grow on the skin and the skin does not rot. This is called salt curing method.
c. Brine curing:
In this case the skin is preserved by dipping it in a concentrated solution of salt.
2. Dressing method:
The next method of preservation is the dressing method. This approach again has a few steps. Those are:
- Dehydration or drowning
- Fleshing method
Due to the process of drying the skin in the preservation method, the skin is dried and the water is completely removed. There are many processes in dressing so there is little water in the skin. Different chemical treatments cannot be done on dry skin. Due to which the preserved skin is immersed in water in this manner. So the first method of dressing is dipping. It is impossible to go to the next step without this process.
This method removes excess fat from the skin with the help of a rotating blade. Excess fat, usually on the underside of the skin, is removed with a blade. As a result, the skin is much thinner and more supple.
Fur is much more flexible and can be preserved for many years, so it is treated with some chemicals at this stage. These chemicals are called salt, soda ash, saw dust and other natural ingredients.
The purpose of tanning fur is to completely remove hair from the skin. The tanning solution does not use any concentrated acid or alkali as it destroys the natural beauty of the fur. So in case of tanning, have to take a solution so that the beauty of the fur is just right. In this case acetic acid is used as a tanning solution.
Natural oils are added at this stage so that the skin is not damaged after tanning. Adding natural oils makes the skin much softer. Fur is then taken to a large revolving drum containing sawdust. In this case excess grease is removed from the skin.
Fur is not usually dyed. The fur obtained from animals tends to be much brighter naturally. Even then, for some dyeing is done depending on the needs of the buyer and the designer. The fur is dyed in such a way that it does no harm and retains its natural beauty.
The uses of fur fabric:
Fur fabric is commonly used to make winter clothing. Different types of fashionable jackets, mufflers are made with fur. It is commonly known as expensive clothing. Also used in making shawls, winter blanket with fur fabric. Currently pillow covers, mats, rugs etc. are being made with this fabric.
Fur plays a very important role in the economic field. Generally, not all countries produce fur. In this case, the relations with other countries increase with the countries where fur is produced. Nowadays fur is a very popular fabric. Fur fabrics are the most acceptable clothing to bring a stylish look to winter clothes.
Author of this Article:
B.Sc. in Clothing and Textile
Govt. College of Applied Human Science, Dhaka
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Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.