Fiber Blending: Purposes, Reasons, Methods and Systems
B.Tech, Dept. of Textile Engineering
Giani Zail Singh Punjab Technical University Campus,
Bathinda, Punjab, India
Blending is a process of mixing two or more different fibers in desired percentage. Blending refers to the process of mixing various lots of fibers to produce a homogeneous mass. Blending is typically carried out before spinning a staple fiber yarn or before forming a staple fiber web in a nonwoven process. Fibers can be combined without forming a homogeneous mixture (blend). For example, a fabric can be woven from two or more types of yarns, each of which is made from a different types of fiber or fiber blend.
The basic objective of blending is to give the end-product certain characteristics which are unobtainable from a single fiber component, such as strength, crease resistance, aesthetic effects and price.
Most popular fiber blending percentages:
- 60% wool / 40% polyester
- 55% polyester / 45% wool
- 75% polyester / 25% wool
- 60% polyester / 20% wool / 20% linen
Reasons for Blending Fibres:
The most popular reason for blending is that of combining the properties of two or more fibers. Blending of different fibers is also used to increase aesthetic effects in the fabric.
Polyester/cotton blend is an example; a good end use is in suiting.
Polyester is a man made fiber with high abrasion resistance and cotton is a natural fiber and has good moisture absorbency and feel.
Wool/ nylon blend is another example, a good end-use is in carpets.
Nylon is a man-made fiber with high abrasion resistance and wool is a natural fiber and is springy and resilient. The nylon improves the abrasion resistance and the wool contributes warmth and resilience.
Purpose of Fiber Blending:
The purpose of combining two or more types of fibers in one product (as a mixture or a blend) is to utilize the respective advantages of the fibers. These advantages may be either unattainable, too costly, or delivering undesirable side effects if only one type of fiber is used. From a commercial point of view, fiber mixtures and blends are formed to improve product performance, to develop new markets, to reduce the total costs of production, or to increase the sales prices of the products by utilizing the respective characteristics of different fibers.
Among the many reason for blending, achieving the improvements or variation in aesthetics performance and economics is the main.
- Surface texture
- Hand and touch
- Functional (end use)
- Wrinkle resistance
- Warmth and comfort
- Fiber cost
- Blend composition
- Spinnability and weavability
- Dyeing and finishing
Methods of Fiber Blending:
There are many ways to manufacture a product from two or more types of fibers.
- Yarns spun from different types of fibers can be combined in one fabric;
- Different yarns and filaments can be twisted together to form a complex yarn;
- Composite yarns can be made from combinations of staple fibers and filaments;
- Blended yarns can be spun from homogeneous blends of different types of staple fibers; and
- Different types of filament yarns can be combined into a complex yarn by twisting or commingling.
Fiber Blending Systems:
Various blending systems have been developed for different fibers and different process routes. The systems may be classified into the following groups, depending on the principles involved.
- Stack blending;
- Batch blending;
- Sliver blending
1. Stack Blending:
In this method the blend components from the bale or bale breakers (pre opened) are weighed and laid down in alternate layers. This stack which is laid horizontally is then withdrawn vertically for feeding.
2. Batch Blending:
Fiber batch blending of up to three lots is allowed as long as there is traceability of each fiber batch and the lots are randomly distributed across the prepreg. For prepreg materials used to establish the initial material database, each prepreg batch should contain a single and unique fiber batch.
3. Sliver Blending:
For the most part, blending of natural and man-made fibers is still carried out in sliver form on the drawframe. This provides the best blend in the longitudinal direction. Up to the draw frame, each raw material can be processed separately on the machines best suited to it.
You may also like:
- Mechanism of Twist Insertion to the Yarn in Ring Spinning
- Blending of Cotton-Polyester Fibre to Produce PC / CVC Yarn
Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.