Cost Effective of Direct Dye (Solophenyl) with Optimum Fastness Properties

Last Updated on 04/07/2021

Cost Effective of Direct Dye (Solophenyl) with Optimum Fastness Properties

R.C. Gosh, R. Sohel, U. Hossen,
I.H. Shimul, S. Rana, S. Karmaker, S.A. Khan

Textile Engineering College, Noakhali
&
M.I. Kiron,
Editor & Founder, Textile Learner
Email: editor@textilelearner.net

 

ABSTRACT
Solophenyl (Huntsman) direct dye is applied on 180 GSM single jersey cotton fabrics. We also use Congo red dye on this cotton fabric. Then we compared between conventional dyeing method and latest dyeing method with solophenyl dye. We have worked at two differences temp 80oC and 60oC and at same time 60 min. Then we have found that at 60oC temperature color fastness to washing is comparatively good but at 80oC temp color fastness to washing is poor. On the other hand at 80oC temperature color fastness to rubbing and color fastness to perspiration are comparatively good and at 60oC temperature color fastness to rubbing and color fastness to perspiration are poor.

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction:
SOLOPHENYL® dyes are suitable for dyeing pale to medium shades, with a robust dyeing system. Economical, complete shade gamut. Superior all round fastness, good light fastness as well as good wet fastness improved with Solophenyl. Additional, some of SOLOPHENYL® dyes with the fixation of ALBAFIX® E can achieve the level of reactive dyes on wet fastness. Fiber i.e. Cellulose, PES/CEL, Wool/CEL, PAN/CEL, Viscose, and other blends.

Direct dye or Substantive dye is one of the most versatile classes of dyestuff applicable to cellulose, wool, and nylon fibers. Although direct dyes have deficiency in wet colorfastness but it exhibits a wide range of fastness properties as shown by their use in apparel, upholstery, lining and automotive fabrics. Direct cotton dyes have inherent substantivity for cotton, and for other cellulosic fibers. Their aqueous solutions dye cotton usually in the presence of an electrolyte such as NaCl or Na2SO4.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Scouring:
Scouring is the process by which all natural and adventitious impurities such as oil, wax, fat etc. are removed to produce hydrophilic and clean textile material. It is the vital process of wet processing.

2.2 Object of Scouring:

  • To make the fabric highly hydrophilic.
  • To remove impurities such as oils, waxes, gum, husks as completely as possible.
  • To increase absorbency of fabric or textile materials without undergoing physical and chemical damage.

2.3 Bleaching:
Bleaching of textile material is a chemical or commercial process which can be defined as- Destruction of natural coloring matters to impart pure permanent and basic white effects suitable for the production of white finishes, level dyeing and desired printed shade with the minimum or no tendering (degradation) or without diminishing the tensile strength.

2.4 Object of Bleaching:

  • To ensure a pure and permanent basic white color fabric.
  • Destruction of natural coloring matters from the fabric.
  • To increase absorbing for dyeing operation.
  • To ensure level dyeing property.
  • To make the textile materials suitable for subsequent processing.

2.5 Scouring and Bleaching Recipe:

Chemical Amount g/l
NaOH 5 g/l
H2O2 5 g/l
Wetting agent 1.5 g/l
Sequestering agent 1.5 g/l
Stabilizers 1.5 g/l
Peroxide killer 0.5 ml
M:L 1:15
Sample 10 gm

2.6 Calculation:

NaOH = (5×150)/(1000×10%) = (5×150×100)/(1000×10) = 7.5 cc

H2O2 = (5×150)/1000= 0.75 cc

Wetting agent = (1.5×150)/1000 = 0.22 cc

Sequestering agent = 0.22 cc

Stabilizers = 0.22 cc

Peroxide killer = 0.5 ml

Chemical = (7.5 + 0.75 + 0.22 + 0.22 + 0.22 + 0.5) = 9.41 ml

Water = 140.59 ml

Total = 9.41ml + 140.59ml = 150ml

Acid wash then take in close bath

2.7 Aftertreatment after Scouring:

  • With H2O2 killer at 80° – 90°C for 10 min
  • Cold wash
  • Acid wash
  • Detergent
  • Again cold wash

CHAPTER 3
OBJECTIVES

3.1 Objectives

  • Eco-friendly: Solophenyl dyes are most used on cotton fabrics eco-friendly. Because when cotton fabrics are dyed by this dyes, only salt are used for dyeing. So it is most eco-friendly for environment.
  • Energy saving: Solophenyl dyes are saving energy during dyeing of cotton fabric dyeing. Only at 80oC or 60oC temp cotton fabrics are dyed by Solophenyl direct dyes.
  • Cost effective: Solophenyl dyes are most cost effective. The cost of dyeing of cotton fabrics by Solophenyl dyes is not so much. Here salt is used for dyeing of cotton fabrics.

CHAPTER 4
MATERIALS AND METHODS

4.1 Materials: 
Raw materials: Cotton 180 GSM single jersey knit
Chemical: Salt
M/C: Intra Red Lab Dyeing M/C

Intra Red Lab Dyeing Machine
Figure 1: Intra Red Lab Dyeing Machine

Intra Red Lab Dyeing M/C
Brand: Co- Power
Manu: Taiwan

4.2 Methods:

1. Processing methods:

  1. Conventional Pretreatment
  2. Dyeing with solophenyl (direct dye)

2. Testing method:
a) Fastness properties testing:

4.3 Cotton Dye with Direct Dye (Solophenyl, Huntsman):

4.3.1 Dyeing Recipe:

Dye 0.5% 1.0% 1.2%
Salt 30g/l 40g/l 40g/l

M: L = 1:8
Time: 60 min
Temperature: 80°C

4.3.2 Calculation:

Dye = (sample weight×shade%)/(stock%)
Auxiliaries = (g/l×Total liquor)/(1000×stock solution%)

For 0.5% shade,
Bath: 01
Dye required = (10×0.5%)/(1%)=5cc
Salt required = (30×80×100)/(1000×10)=24cc

For 1.0% shade,
Bath: 02
Dye required = (10×1%)/(1%)=10cc
Salt required = (40×80×100)/(1000×10)=32cc

For 1.2% shade,
Bath: 03
Dye required = (10×1.2%)/(1%)=12cc
Salt required = (40×80×100)/(1000×10)=32cc

Bath: 01

  • Chemical = (5+24) ml = 29ml
  • Water = 51 ml
  • Total = 29+51 = 80ml

Bath: 02

  • Chemical = (10+32) ml = 42ml
  • Water = 38ml
  • Total = 38+42 = 80ml

Bath: 03

  • Chemical = (12+32) ml = 44ml
  • Water = 36 ml
  • Total = 80ml

4.3.3 Working Procedure:

  1. Prepare the three dye solution by weighing 0.5gm, 1gm, 1.2gm of dye and dissolving it in 100 ml of water. Prepare three 10 gm samples of bleached knitted cotton fabric.
  2. Prepare three dyebaths as Liquor ratio of 8:1
  3. Prepare stock solution of salt and soda ash and take required cc.
  4. Take liquid chemical and rest of water to maintain liquor ratio 1:8
  5. At first addition water is taken into dye bath and taken materials and dye solution is added to dye bath slowly.
  6. Commence dyeing at 80°C raise temperature to the boil at (2oC/min) and dyeing for 60 minutes at the boil.
  7. Cooling down at 40oC in 30min
  8. Hot wash with detergent

4.3.4 Process Curve (Dyeing of cotton fabric with direct dyes):

Dyeing curve of direct dye
Figure 2: Dyeing curve of direct dye

4.4 Color Fastness to Washing:

4.4.1 Wash fastness:
Wash fastness is the fastness laundering of the color of dyed or printed textile materials. If the cloth is dyed to be used for making garments, the dye should passes good washing fastness. Otherwise staining of garments with stripped dyestuff will occur during washing of many garments, together.

Wash fastness is rated in number from 1 to 5 as in table.

Wash fastness rating:

Fastness Grade Fastness Rating
1 Very Poor
2 Poor
3 Moderate
3-4 Fair
4 Good
4-5 Very Good
5 Excellent

Recipe:

  • Heal’s (ISO) Standard soap = 5 g/l
  • Anhydrous sodium carbonate pake (500 G) = 2 g/l
  • M:L = 1:50
  • Sample size= (10×4)cm2
  • Water = 1 L
  • Sample weight = 1.3 g [50 ×1.3= 65 cc]
  • Temp = 60°C
  • Time = 30 min
  • Then take in dryer
Gyrowash
Figure 1: Gyrowash

Washing and Dry Cleaning
Color Fastness Tester
Model: James H. Heal
Origin: Uk

4.4.2 Color staining:

Table no: 01

Dye Shade% Di-Acetate Bleached Cotton Polyamide Polyester Acrylic Wool
0.5%          4          2          4         4           4         4
1.0%          4        1/2          4         4           4         4
1.2%          4       1/2          4         4           4         4

Testing Procedure:

  • Cut dyed specimen size 10×4.
  • Cut multi fiber size 10× 4.
  • Align test specimen and multi fiber and sew them together to form a composite specimen.
  • After treating the samples are rinsed in cold distilled water twice and then for 10 min in cold running tap water.
  • Then the samples are squeezed and the stitching is removed from 3 sides leaving one short side 4cm sewed.
  • Then it is dried at maxm 600C temp.

4.5 Color Fastness to Perspiration:

Alkali Solution:

Recipe:

  • L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (98%) = 0.5%
  • Di- sodium hydrogen orthophosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) = 2.5 g/l
  • Sodium chloride (NaCl) = 5 gm
  • pH = 8.0

Acid solution:

Recipe:

  • L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (98%) = 0.5%
  • Sodium di-hydrogen orthophosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) = 2.2 g/l
  • Sodium chloride (NaCl) = 5 gm
  • pH = 5.5
  • Temp = 37oC
  • Time = 4 hrs
Perspirometer
Figure 4: Perspirometer

Perspirometer
James H. Heal and Co Ltd
Serial: 4490

Procedure:

  • Sample size (10×4) is taken.
  • The sample (10×4) is placed between two undyed fabric pieces (5×4)
  • One of the two pieces of undyed sample, if available, one should be a multifiber fabric. This fiber has different fibers side by side.
  • Three pieces are held together by stitching round edges, leaving (5×4) exposed.
  • Now the composite specimen is wetted in perspiration solution A and is kept for 30 min at room temperature.
  • The liquor is poured off (sample should not squeezed).
  • The specimen is then placed between two glass plate (acrylic glass plate-(11.5×6.0×0.15)) 4.5kg (10lb) pressures is applied by weight for 4hrs at oven (incubator) temperature (37oC + 2oC).
  • Then pressure is released and the undyed and specimens are separated then dried in air at temperature 60o
  • The procedure is repeated with solution B.
  • The change of color and staining are then assessed with grey scales for each test.
  • Maximum 10 samples can testes at a time.

4.5.1 Table no: 02

Dye Shade% Di-Acetate Bleached Cotton Polyamide Polyester Acrylic Wool
0.5%          4/5        3/4          4         4/5           4/5         4/5
1.0%          4/5        3/4          4         4/5           4/5         4
1.2%          4/5         3          4         4/5           4/5         4

4.6 Color Fastness to Rubbing:
Rubbing fastness is very important for the dyed fabrics which experience or undergo various types of abrasion. If color of a dyed fabric is faded due to abrasion the dye is said to have poor rubbing fastness.

If dyed material can be stripped by friction or abrasion, then it is said that the dyed has poor rubbing fastness.

For testing of rubbing of fabric CROCKMASTER is used.

Determination of Rubbing Fastness:

Apparatus:

  • AATCC crock meter
  • Crock meter test cloth
  • Grey scale for staining
  • Specimen holder for crock meter

Procedure:

  • Cut the sample as long as can be covered the metallic mounting plate (5×2”).
  • Set the crocking cloth in the crocking pin with clip.
  • 10×10 rub is done by turning handle.
  • Remove the crocking cloth from peg.
  • After rubbing the fabric, it is taken under LIGHT BOX.
  • It is observed into D65 light mode
  • By using CROCKMASTER we can get these results (discussed below)
Rubbing Fastness Tester
Figure 5: Rubbing Fastness Tester

Rubbing Fastness Tester
Crockmaster
Color Fastness to Rubbing Tester
James H. Heal and Co. Ltd. Hal
Origin: England

4.6.1 Table no: 03

DYE SHADE% IN DRY CONDITION IN WET CONDITION
0.5%                    4/5                     3/4
1.0%                   4/5                       3
1.2%                   4/5                        3

4.7 Cotton Dye with Direct Dye (Solophenyl, Huntsman):

4.7.1 Dyeing Recipe:

Dye 0.5% 1.0% 1.2%
Salt 30g/l 40g/l 40g/l

M: L= 1:8
Time: 60 min
Temp: 60°C

4.7.2 Calculation:

Dye = (sample weight×shade%)/(stock%)
Auxiliaries = (g/l×Total liquor)/(1000×stock solution%)

For 0.5% shade,
Bath 1:
Dye required = (10×0.5%)/(1%)=5cc
Salt required = (30×80×100)/(1000×10)=24cc

For 1.0% shade,
Bath 2:
Dye required = (10×1%)/(1%)=10cc
Salt required = (40×80×100)/(1000×10)=32cc

For 1.2% shade,
Bath 3:
Dye required = (10×1.2%)/(1%)=12cc
Salt required = (40×80×100)/(1000×10)=32cc

Bath 1:

  • Chemical = (5+24) ml = 29ml
  • Water = 51 ml
  • Total = 29+5 = 80ml

Bath 2:

  • Chemical = (10+32) ml = 42ml
  • Water = 38ml
  • Total = 38+42 = 80ml

Bath 3:

  • Chemical = (12+32) ml = 44ml
  • Water = 36 ml
  • Total = 80ml

4.7.3 Working Procedure:

  • Prepare the three dye solution by weighing 0.5gm, 1gm, 1.2gm of dye and dissolving it in 100 ml of water. Prepare three 10 gm samples of bleached knitted cotton fabric.
  • Prepare three dyebaths as Liquor ratio of 8:1
  • Prepare stock solution of salt and soda ash and take required cc.
  • Take liquid chemical and rest of water to maintain liquor ratio 1:8
  • At first addition water is taken into dye bath and taken materials and dye solution is added to dye bath slowly.
  • Commence dyeing at 60°C raise temperature to the boil at (2oC /min) and dyeing for 60 minutes at the boil.
  • Cooling down at 40oC in 30min
  • Hot wash with detergent

4.7.4 Process Curve (Dyeing of cotton fabric with direct dyes):

Dyeing curve of direct dye
Figure 6: Dyeing curve of direct dye

4.8 Color Fastness to Washing:

4.8.1 Wash fastness:
Wash fastness is the fastness laundering of the color of dyed or printed textile materials. If the cloth is dyed to be used for making garments, the dye should posses good washing fastness. Otherwise staining of garments with stripped dyestuff will occur during washing of many garments, together.

Wash fastness is rated in number from 1 to 5 as in table.

Wash fastness rating:

Fastness Grade Fastness Rating
1 Very Poor
2 Poor
3 Moderate
3-4 Fair
4 Good
4-5 Very Good
5 Excellent

Recipe:

  • Heal’s (ISO) Standard soap = 5 g/l
  • Anhydrous sodium carbonate pake (500 G) = 2 g/l
  • M:L = 1:50
  • Sample size = (10×4 )cm2
  • Water = 1 L
  • Sample weight = 1.3 g [ 50 ×1.3= 65 cc]
  • Temp = 60°C
  • Time = 30 min
  • Then take in dryer

4.8.2 Color Staining:

Table no: 04

Dye Shade% Di-Acetate Bleached Cotton Polyamide Polyester Acrylic Wool
0.5%          4/5          3          4/5         4/5           4         4/5
1.0%          4/5        2/3          4         4           3/4         4
1.2%          4/5         2          4         4           3/4         4

Testing Procedure:

  • Cut dyed specimen size 10×4.
  • Cut multi fiber size 10×4.
  • Align test specimen and multi fiber and sew them together to form a composite specimen.
  • After treating the samples are rinsed in cold distilled water twice and then for 10 min in cold running tap water.
  • Then the samples are squeezed and the stitching is removed from 3 sides leaving one short side 4cm sewed.
  • Then it is dried at maxm 600C temp.

4.9 Color Fastness to Perspiration:

Alkali solution:

Recipe:

  • L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (98%) = 0.5%
  • Di- sodium hydrogen orthophosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) = 2.5 g/l
  • Sodium chloride (NaCl) = 5 gm
  • pH = 8.0

Acid solution:

Recipe:

  • L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (98%) = 0.5%
  • Sodium di-hydrogen orthophosphate dehydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O) = 2.2 g/l
  • Sodium chloride (NaCl) = 5 gm
  • pH = 5.5
  • Sample size = 10cm×4cm
  • Temp = 37oC
  • Time = 4hrs

4.9.1 Table no: 05

Dye Shade% Di-Acetate Bleached Cotton Polyamide Polyester Acrylic Wool
0.5%          4/5          3/4          4         4/5           4/5         4/5
1.0%          4/5        2/3          4         4/5           4/5         4/5
1.2%          4/5         2          4         4           4/5         4

Procedure:

  • Sample size (10×4) is taken.
  • The sample (10×4) is placed between two undyed fabric pieces (5×4)
  • One of the two pieces of undyed sample, if available, one should be a multifiber fabric. This fiber has different fibers side by side.
  • Three pieces are held together by stitching round edges, leaving (5×4) exposed.
  • Now the composite specimen is wetted in perspiration solution A and is kept for 30 min at room temperature.
  • The liquor is poured off (sample should not squeezed).
  • The specimen is then placed between two glass plate (acrylic glass plate (11.5×6.0×0.15) 5kg (10lb) pressures is applied by weight for 4hrs at oven (incubator) temperature (37oC+2oC).
  • Then pressure is released and the undyed and specimens are separated then dried in air at temperature 60oC.
  • The procedure is repeated with solution B.
  • The change of color and staining are then assessed with grey scales for each test.
  • Maximum 10 samples can testes at a time

4.10 Color Fastness to Rubbing:
Rubbing fastness is very important for the dyed fabrics which experience or undergo various types of abrasion. If color of a dyed fabric is faded due to abrasion the dye is said to have poor rubbing fastness.

If dyed material can be stripped by friction or abrasion, then it is said that the dyed has poor rubbing fastness.

For testing of rubbing of fabric CROCKMASTER is used.

Determination of Rubbing Fastness:

Apparatus:

  • AATCC crock meter
  • Crock meter test cloth
  • Grey scale for staining
  • Specimen holder for crock meter

Procedure:

  • Cut the sample as long as can be covered the metallic mounting plate (5×2”).
  • Set the crocking cloth in the crocking pin with clip.
  • 10×10 rub is done by turning handle.
  • Remove the crocking cloth from peg.
  • After rubbing the fabric, it is taken under LIGHT BOX.
  • It is observed into D65 light mode…
  • By using CROCKMASTER we can get these results (discussed below):

4.10.1 Table no: 06

DYE SHADE% IN DRY CONDITION IN WET CONDITION
0.5%                    4/5 3
1.0%                   4/5                     2/3
1.2% 4 2

CHAPTER 5
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

At 80oC temp 60min,

Color fastness to washing:
Color fastness to washing property is poor.

Color fastness to rubbing and perspiration:
Color fastness to rubbing and color fastness to perspiration are comparatively good.

And at 60oC temp 60 min,

Color fastness to washing:
Colorfastness to washing is comparatively good

Color fastness to rubbing and perspiration:
Color fastness to rubbing and color fastness to perspiration are comparatively poor.

CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION

6.1 Conclusion:

At 80oC temp, 60 min,

  1. Color fastness to perspiration: 3/4 (Fair)
  2. Color fastness to washing: 2 (Poor)
  3. Color fastness to rubbing (dry): 4/5 (Good)
  4. Color fastness to rubbing (wet): 3/4 (Fair)

At 60oC temp, 60 min,

  1. Color fastness to perspiration fastness: 3/4 (Fair)
  2. Color fastness to washing fastness: 3 (Moderate)
  3. Color fastness to rubbing fastness (dry): 4/5 (Good)
  4. Color fastness to rubbing fastness (wet): 3 (Moderate)

6.2 Limitation:

  • Duration: We can work only 2 week which is not enough for our project work.
  • Scope of chemicals: There are limitation of solophenyl dyes and salt.

6.3 Future Scope:
If we have more raw materials (i.e. solophenyl dye, salt), we can develop our project work. The future scope of solophenyl dye (direct dye) will be more cost effective when the company will use this dye.

6.4 References:
[1] Dyeing and Chemical Technology of Textile Fibres by E.R. Trotman
[2] Textile Preparation and Dyeing – A K Roy Choudhury
[3] Technology of Dyeing by V.A Shenai
[4] Textile Dyes by N. N. Mahapatra

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