Antimicrobial and Blood Repellent Finish on Surgical Gown
Nikhil Yogesh Upadhye
Department of Textiles (Textile Chemistry)
DKTE’S Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, India
Intern at Textile Learner
Textile goods are excellent substrate for growing microorganisms. For the last fifty years, the prevention of microbial attack on textile materials has become increasingly important to consumers and textile producers. Several dangerous, infectious and blood borne bacteria and viruses, such as pseudomonas, candida, S.aureus and E.coli, are in attendance in hospital locations which are conductive for increase of the microorganisms. The textile materials such as socks and underwear faced with smell from body perspiration. Currently there is also an interest in protecting health care workers from diseases that might be carried out by patients. Especially for surgical gowns, drapes, masks, sheets, and pillow cases, there is an increasing need to care for medical staff from infection by blood borne pathogens such as HIV and HBV.
Gowns should be able to avoid strikethrough or wetting out of the fabric, and so surgical gown materials should have not only antimicrobial properties but also blood barrier properties. In addition the textile used in hotels, transportation and biological institution needs antimicrobial textiles. Textile materials with good opposing to antibacterial attack and cross infection by giving antibacterial and blood repellent finish. Textile materials with controlled release properties can release chemicals in a controlled way.
Often there is a continuous slow release of the chemicals but the release can also be envisaged upon a stimulus. The controlled release of chemicals can find many applications, not only in the cosmetic area, where several products are already commercially available, but also in medical applications for controlled release of drugs. Nowadays, nonwoven fabrics are the most commonly used textiles for surgical gowns, patient drapes, laboratory coats, coveralls, and other kinds of protective clothing. There is currently a prominent trend toward increasing the level of hygienic necessities for materials used in both households and in different service sectors. The regulars need for protection from possible infection during stays in hotels and hospitals.
Textiles materials are carriers of pathogenic micro flora, so that having fabric properties that prevent biological media (blood, wound secretions) from adhering to them and suppressing growth of microorganisms is of great attention. The creation of materials with antibacterial and adhesive properties for flaxication of bed linens and medical uniforms will reduce the risk work-related diseases in medical personnel and the spread of infections. But we are using simultaneous neem emulsion as antimicrobial agent and blood repellent finish as siloxane based in the finishing bath.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Pre-treatments used on the surgical gown further up to finishing process:
Desizing is the process of removal of size material applied on warp threads of a fabric to facilitate the process of weaving. Size forms a stiff, hard and smooth coating on warp yarns to enable them to withstand the cyclic tensions during weaving and reduce breakage. In the desizing process we have done rot desizing on the fabric.
Types of desizing:
- Rot desizing
- Acid desizing (HCl)
- Alkali desizing (NaOH)
- Enzyme desizing (Amylase)
Scouring is the process by which natural (oil, fat, and waxes etc.) as well as added (during fabrication process) impurities are removed as completely as possible. Especially hydrophobic character which is present in fiber of fabric is removed by this process. In this process to increase the absorbency we have done conventional scouring process.
Types of Scouring:
- Sequestering agent
Textile bleaching is one of the stages in the manufacture of textiles. All raw textile materials, when they are in natural form, are known as ‘greige’ material. This greige material will have its natural color, odor and impurities that are not suitable for clothing materials. Not only the natural impurities will remain on the greige material but also the add-ons that were made during its cultivation, growth and manufacture in the form of pesticides, fungicides, worm killers, sizes, lubricants, etc. The removal of these natural coloring matters and add-ons during the previous state of manufacturing is called bleaching.
Types of bleaching agents:
- Wetting agent
2.4 Silicone water repellents:
Polydimethylsiloxane products that are useful as water repellents can form a hydrophobic layer around fibers (Fig. 2.1)The unique structure of the polydimethylsiloxane provides the ability to form hydrogen bonds with fibers as well as display a hydrophobic outer surface. In order to gain some measure of durability, silicones designed as water-repellent treatments usually consist of three components, a silanol, a silane and a catalyst such as tin octoate (Fig. 2.2). The catalyst enables not only moderate condensation conditions but also promotes the orientation of the silicone film on the fiber surface. The outward oriented methyl groups generate the water repellency. During the drying step after pad application, the silanol and silane components can react (Fig. 2.3) to form a three-dimensional cross linked sheath around the fiber. This reaction is often completed after storage of about one day, then providing full repellency. The Si–H groups of the silaneare the reactive links in the silicone chain, generating crosslinks or being oxidized by airor hydrolyzed by water to hydroxyl groups. These hydroxyl groups may cause further crosslinking, but if too many of them stay unreacted, their hydrophilicity will decrease the repellency. 
Polydimethylsiloxane on a fiber surface. A, hydrophobic surface; B, hydrogen bonds to polar surface; C, fiber surface.
(Fig. 2.2) Components of a silicon water repellent.
Silanol–silane reaction. A is removal of H2; B is Si–O–Si cross linked polymer; tin octoate is the catalyst.
This is the structure of Polydimethylsiloxane water repellant finish given to the surgical gown. (Fig. 2.3)
Silicone double layer on the fiber. A, polar surface; B, hydrophobic attraction of the methyl groups; C, hydrogen bonds to polar fiber surface; D, fiber surface.
Advantages of silicone water repellents include a high degree of water repellency at relatively low (0.5–1% owf) on weight of fabric concentrations, very soft fabric hand, improved sewability and shape retention, and improved appearance and feel of pile fabrics. Some modified silicone repellents can be exhaust applied. The disadvantages of silicone repellents include increased pilling and seam slippage, reduced repellency if excessive amounts are applied (for example silicone double layer with polar outside, Fig. 2.4 ), only moderate durability to laundering (through hydrolysis of siloxane and rupture of the film by strong cellulose fiber swelling) and dry cleaning (adsorption of surfactants), and no oil and soil repellency. The silicone finish may enhance the attraction of hydrophobic dirt. In addition, the waste water, especially the residual baths, from these finish application process are toxic to finish. 
2.5 Antimicrobial finish:
Antimicrobial finish on textiles, Clothing and textile materials are not only the carriers of microorganisms such as pathogenic bacteria, odor generating bacteria and mould fungi, but also good media for the growth of the microorganisms. Microbial infestation poses danger to both living and nonliving matters.In this process we are used neem emulsion as antimicrobial finish.
2.6 Blood repellent finish:
Fabric used in hospitals for healthcare purposes need to be blood and a water repellent. Blood repellent finish is applied to fabrics used for surgical gowns, bed linens and drapes to reduce surgical site infections. In this process we are used (PDMS) as a blood repellent.
2.7 Simultaneous antimicrobial and blood repellent finish:
We are combining the neem emulsion as antimicrobial agent and blood repellent finish as siloxane based in the finishing bath. Neem protect from the microorganisms and siloxane.
3. PLAN OF WORK
Antimicrobial and blood repellant finish has been applied to cotton fabric used for surgical gowns. In this project neem oil emulsion is formed by using emulsifier and this is combined to siloxane based water repellant finish (4%, 6%, and 8%) will be the concentration of this chemicals through the method using pad-dry-cure method is done and further tasting of the antimicrobial and water repellant finish is done.
Textile goods are excellent substrate for growing microorganisms. For the last fifty years, the prevention of microbial attack on textile materials has become increasingly important to consumers and textile producers. Clothing such as socks and underwear faced with odor from body perspiration. Currently there is also an interest in protecting health care workers from diseases that might be carried out by patients. Especially for surgical gowns, there is an increasing need to protect medical staff from infection by blood borne pathogens such this. Gowns should be able to prevent strike through or wetting out of the fabric, and so surgical gown materials should have not only antimicrobial properties but also blood barrier properties. In addition the textile used in hospitals.
Surgical gown is formed
3.2 Material used:
100% cotton well sized fabric is taken for the study with particulars are as per below mentioned table 3.1
Table 3.1: Fabric preparation
|1||Material||100% cotton sized fabric|
|5||Yarn thickness||60S X 60s|
Table 3.2: Chemical used for study
|Sr.No||Name of Chemical||Grade||Purpose|
|3||Water repellent finish|
|4||Eco friendly resin finish|
Table 3.3: Machine used for study
|Sr.No||Name of machine||Purpose|
A well sized 100% cotton fabric is to be treated with room temperature in cold water for 24 hrs. Followed cold wash. Further fabric is to be air dried and checked for absorbency, weight loss and tensile strength.
Table 3.4: Desizing process
|1||100% Cotton fabric||3 meter|
3.3.2 Conventional scouring process:
Well desized 100% cotton fabric is to be treated with wetting agent, caustic soda flakes and soda ash at 130oC for 3 hrs followed by hot wash at 90oC for 10min. Cold wash and neutralizing with acetic acid as per recipe given in table. Further the fabric is to be air dried and checked for absorbency and tensile strength.
Table 3.5: Scouring process
|1||Wetting agent (TRO)||0.5g\L|
|3||Caustic flakes||4.0% OWF|
3.3.3 Conventional bleaching process:
With above process well scoured 100% cotton fabric is to be treated with hydrogen peroxide (50%), soda ash and sodium silicate at 90oC for 3hrs as per given recipe. Followed by hot wash at 90oC for 15 min. cold wash and neutralizing with acetic acid. Further the fabrics is air dried.
Table 3.6: Bleaching process
|3||Caustic soda flakes||4.0%OWF|
|5||Hydrogen peroxide (50%)||3.0 vol.|
3.3.4 Dyeing with reactive dye:
- Weigh exactly 1gm of sky blue dye powder add equal quantity of urea and then paste it with little amount of cold water.
- Starr the paste with glass rod and make up the volume to 100ml by dissolve hot water with use stirring to dissolve the dye completely.
- Set the dye bath with required of dye solution and warm water keeping MLR 1:30
- The given hank at 60oC and continue dyeing for 15 to 20 min.
- Add 40 gpl common salt with interval of 10 min.
- After complete exhaustion of dye bath add 20 gpl soda ash for the fixation of dye bath .add dyestuff and slowly increase the temp. to 25oC
- Continue dyeing and fixation, remove the hank wash and squeeze.
- Carry out soaping treatment.
Table 3.7: Dyeing process
3.3.5 Finishing process:
- Prepare finishing solution as given bellow
- Combine finishing of antimicrobial and blood repellent finish
- Take a neem oil then add emulsifier in to that antimicrobial solution
- Then take siloxane based water repellant finish add acetic acid, eco-friendly resin and magnesium chloride
- Mix the antimicrobial and blood repellant finish with different concentration
- Padded the fabric with the above solutions
- Dry the fabric and fix through the stenter machine.
Table 3.8: Finishing process
|Sr. No.||Chemical /Parameter||Particulars|
|1||Antimicrobial finish||35 ml|
|2||Acetic acid||5-8 ml|
|3||Water repellent finish||250 ml|
|4||Eco friendly resin finish||3-4 ml|
|5||Magnesium chloride||5 gm.|
3.4 Testing method:
3.4.1 Test method for assessing the antimicrobial finish:
In this work, the qualitative agar diffusion test and the quantitative bacteria reduction through Hohenstein modified test ware used to access the antimicrobial activity of the fabrics.
Agar diffusion method:
Treated and untreated control fabric samples were placed in intimate contact with AATCC bacteriostasis agar, which was previously inoculated a day culture (Slant cultures) of the test organisms, i.e. staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After incubation, it was assessed by visual examination as well as under microscope (X 40 magnification). The evaluation was made on the basis of absence or presence of an effect of bacteria in the contact zone under the specimen and the possible formation of a zone inhibition around the test specimen. The area of inhibition zone is measure of antimicrobial effectiveness.
3.4.2 Test method for assessing blood repellant finish:
The blood repellency of sample was assessed using spray test. The synthetic blood was prepared using distilled water, surfactant, (Acrysol G110) and red dye according to ASTM F23.40.01 (draft) tasting resistance of protective clothing material to synthetic blood.
Spray test (AATCC 22-1996):
Water sprayed against taut surface of a test specimen under control conditions produces wetted pattern whose size depends on a relative repellency of the fabric. Specimen of 18×18 cm size was conditioned at 65+/-2 RH and 21o+/-1oC. Evaluation is accomplished by comparing the wetted pattern with the observations as mentioned in following standard rating chart:
Table 3.9: Spray ratings
|100 (ISO-5)||Sticking or wetting of upper surface|
|90 (ISO-4)||Slight random sticking or wetting of upper surface|
|80 (ISO-3)||Wetting of upper surface of spray points|
|70 (ISO-2)||Partial wetting of whole of the upper surface|
|50 (ISO-1)||Complete wetting of whole of the upper surface|
|0||Complete wetting of whole upper and lower surface|
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Surgical gown: A surgical gown is prepared by using antimicrobial and blood repellant finished fabric and ready to use. This is shown in fig no 4.1 and 4.2.
4.2 Testing for antimicrobial is done by using agar plate test. The results are shown in fig 4.3 and 4.4. From this result it is observed that, after application of antimicrobial finish infected area decreases. This result indicate antimicrobial resistance of fabric increases.
4.3 Increase in concentration of finish chemical does not affect the antimicrobial effect but it increase the blood repellency of fabric.
4.4 Simultaneously antimicrobial and blood repellant finish protect from microbes, and blood repellant finish gives standard spray ratings.
5.1 The antimicrobial efficiency of the syloxine based treated fabric reduces with the increase in polydimethylene syloxine concentration but the blood repellency increases.
5.2 Simultaneously antimicrobial and blood repellant finish protect from microbes, and blood repellant finish gives standard spray ratings.
5.3 To optimize process concentration of antimicrobial and blood repellent finish during the process.
5.4To Protection from Micro-organism textile materials and clothing are known to be susceptible to microbial attack, to make product blood repellent and antimicrobial finished gown.
- G. Thlagavathi, T.Kannaian, Dual Antimicrobial and blood repellent finishes for cotton hospital fabrics, IJFTR, volar, 33, 2008, 23-29.
- Luis Almeida., Functionalization of Textiles – Future Perspectives.
- Dieter Lammermann., meilliand English, 11,1991, 875.
- Friedrich S and Schindler W, ‘Influence of water- and oil repellent finishing on the permeability to air of a woven cotton fabric’, Melliand Textilberichte, 1990, 71, 211– 213,E67–E68.
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