Application of Dyes According to Fiber Characteristics

Last Updated on 20/08/2022

Dyes and Their Classification:
Dyes are soluble, colored organic compounds that are usually applied to textiles from a solution in water. A dye is used to impart color to materials of which it becomes an integral part. Dyes may be defined as the different types of coloring particles differ each type from other type in chemical composition and are used for coloring fabrics, yarns in different fine of colors and shades and which are completely soluble in liquid substance. They are colored organic compounds that are used to impart color to various substrates. Dyes are widely applied on paper, leather, fur, hair, drugs, cosmetics, waxes, greases, plastics and textile materials.

Application of Dyes based on fiber properties

A dye must do more than simply color the surface of the fiber. It should become part of the fiber, and wear and wash with the fiber. A dye should be fast to light and should show resistance to the action of various organic solvents used in dry cleaning, dilute alkalis and acids, etc. A number of dyes satisfy these conditions very well when used on some material but not when used on others. In all cases chemical structure of the material determines the process and the dye to be used for dyeing it.

There are different types of dyes for dyeing textile goods. These dyes have different nature in fiber. It depends on fiber characteristics, chemical structure etc. The main classes of dyes are as follows:

  1. Direct dyes
  2. Basic dyes
  3. Acid dyes
  4. Mordant dyes
  5. Sulphur dyes
  6. Azoic dyes
  7. Vat dyes
  8. Disperse dyes
  9. Reactive dyes
  10. Metal-complex dyes
  11. Onium dyes
  12. Pigment dyes
  13. Mineral dyes etc

Application of Dyes Based on Fiber Properties:
All ready we know that dyes have widely used in different area. In this article I will give application of dyes according to fiber characteristics. Application of dyes in different fibers are given below:

Application of Dyes for Protein Fibers:
The different application classes of dyes available for the dyeing of protein fibers have different characteristics in terms of their ease of application, levelling and fastness properties, in particular fastness to wet treatments. Acid Dyes, Mordant Dyes, Metal complex dyes, Reactive Dyes etc. are used for dyeing in case of protein fibers.

Application of Dyes for Cellulosic Fibers:
Cellulosic fibers are dyed with more types of dye, than for any other fiber. They are water- soluble dyes applied by one bath process. Reactive dyes are widely used for dyeing cellulosic fibers. Direct Dyes, Vat Dyes, Solubilised Vat Dyes, Sulphur Dyes, Azoic Dyes are also used in dyeing for cellulosic fibers.

Application of Dyes for Synthetic Fibers:
The most commonly used synthetic fibers are polyester, nylon and acrylic, of which polyester is by far the most important. All can be dyed with disperse dyes. Nylon can be dyed with acid and reactive dyes as well. The same theoretical principles apply to the dyeing of nylon with acid and reactive dyes as for protein fibers, though there are slight differences in the application processes. Acrylic fibers are usually dyed with basic dyes.

Table lists the dyes under their technological names that indicate how they are applied, along with the fibers to which they are applied.

Name of DyesApplication
Reactive dyesCotton, Wool, Silk, Viscose, Nylon, Linen
Acid dyesMan made fiber (Nylon),

Natural fiber (Silk, Wool)

Direct DyesMan made fiber (Viscose),

Natural fiber (Cotton, Linen)

Vat dyesMan made fiber (Viscose),

Natural fiber (Cotton, Silk, Wool, Linen)

Disperse dyesNylon, Polyester, Acrylic, Tri-acetate, Di-acetate
Basic dyesJute, Acrylic
Sulfur dyesCotton, Viscose, Linen
Mordant dyesCotton, Wool, Silk
PigmentCotton, Man-made fiber
Metal-complex dyesWool and other protein fibers, polyamides
Mineral dyesCotton, Wool, Silk
Azoic dyesCotton, Viscose
Aniline BlackCotton
Rapid and Rapidson dyesCotton
Onium dyesCotton, Jute

You may also like:

  1. Methods of Dyeing | Different Types of Dyeing Methods
  2. Classification and Characteristics of Dyes | Commercial Name of Dyes
  3. Requirements of Dyes and Pigments and Their Differences
  4. Pigment Types, Properties, Trade Name, Uses, Advantages and Disadvantages
  5. Different Types of Dyes with Chemical Structure

Share this Article!

Leave a Comment