Torsional Properties of Fiber and Textile Materials

Last Updated on 14/02/2022

Torsional Properties of Fiber:
It is the property of textile fibers or materials when a torsional force is applied on it. The torsional properties determine how fiber respond while being twisted. Here Torsional force is a twisting force that is applied on the two ends of the material in two opposite direction. The behaviors which are shown by a textile material when it is subjected to a torsional force is called torsional property. The shear modulus of a fiber can be determined through torsional testing.

Torsional properties of fiber

Torsional properties of fiber are..

  1. Torsional rigidity
  2. Breaking twist
  3. Shear modulus

Above torsional properties of fiber are described below.

1. Torsional rigidity:  
Torsional rigidity can be defined as the torque required against twisting is done for which torque is termed as torsional rigidity. The torsional rigidity of a fiber, its resistance to twisting, is defined as the couple needed to put in unit twist, that is, unit angular deflection between the ends of a specimen of unit length. Torsional rigidity is very much affected by moisture, fibers being easier to twist as their regain increases.

Mathematically,

——————————————-Torque
Torsional rigidity = ——————————————————–
——————————-Unit twist per unit length

—-ηεc2
= ———–
—–ρ

Where,

ε = Shape factor,
η = Specific shear modulus (N/tex)
c = Linear density
ρ = Density of fiber

From similar considerations, it can be shown that, as fineness varies and other things are equal, resistance to torsion increases more rapidly than fiber linear density. Hence fineness plays a part in determining the ease with which fibers can be twisted together during yarn formation.

The torsional rigidity can be obtained in terms of the shear modulus (or modulus of rigidity) in the same way that the flexural rigidity can be obtained in terms of the tensile modulus, since twisting bears the same relation to shearing as bending does to stretching.

Specific torsional rigidity: Specific torsional rigidity can be defined as the torsional rigidity of a fiber of unit linear density.

Mathematically, specific torsional rigidity = ηε/ρ

Unit: N-m2/Tex

Specific torsional rigidity of different textile fibers:

Fiber Specific torsional rigidity (mN-mm2/tex)
Cotton 0.16
Wool 0.12
Silk 0.16
Viscose 0.085
Nylon-6.6 0.06
Polyester 0.067

2. Breaking twist:
The twist for breaking of a yarn is called breaking twist. It also can be defined as the number of twists required to break a yarn. Breaking twist depends on the diameter of fiber and it is inversely proportional to its diameter. That is, τb ∞ 1/d

Where,

τb = Breaking twist,
d = diameter of fiber

Breaking twist angle (BTA): This is the angle through which outer layer of fiber are sheared at breaking.

Mathematically, α = tan-1(πdτb)

Where,

α = breaking twist angle,
d = diameter of fiber,
τb = breaking twist per unit length

Breaking twist angle of different textile fibers:

Fiber Breaking twist angle (α) Fiber Breaking twist angle (α)
Cotton 35° Wool 40°
Viscose 33° Silk 39°
Polyester 50° Glass

3. Shear modulus: 
The shear modulus is defined as the ratio of shear stress to shear strain, the shear strain being measured in radians. Shear modulus or modulus of rigidity, denoted by G, or sometimes S or μ. Shear modulus’ derived SI unit is the pascal (Pa), although it is usually expressed in gigapascals (GPa) or in thousands of pounds per square inch (ksi). Its dimensional form is M1L−1T−2.

Torsional Properties of Different Textile Fibers:

Fiber Specific flexural rigidity (m N mm2/tex2) Modulus GPa   Specific torsional rigidity
(MIN mm2/tex2)
Shear modulus (kN/mm2)
bending tension
Cotton 0.53   7.7 0.16  
Viscose rayon          
     Fibro (staple) 0.35 10 8.7 0.058-0.083 0.84-1.2
     Vince! (high wet modulus) 0.69 20   0.097 1.4
Secondary acetate 0.25   4.2 0.064  
Triacetate 0.25   3.8 0.091  
Wool 0.24 3.9 5.2 0.12 1.3
Silk 0.60   14 0.16  
Casein
Fibrolane
0.18   2.3 0.11  
Nylon 6.6 (3 types) 0.15-0.22 2.5-3.6 1.9-3.8 0.041-0.060 0.033-0.48
Polyester fiber
Terylene
0.30 7.7 6.2 0.067 0.85
Acrylic fiber (3 types) 0.33-0.48 6.0-8.1 4.9-7.0 0.12-0.18 1.0-1.6
Polypropylene 0.51 5.2 2.4 0.14 0.75

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  1. Electrical Properties of Textile Fiber
  2. Durability Properties of Natural and Manmade Fibers

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