Different Parts of Air Jet Loom and Their Functions

Last Updated on 24/01/2022

Different Parts of Air Jet Loom and Their Functions

Shubham Yadav
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering
Government Central Textile Institute,
Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
Email: shubham_yadav08@ymail.com


Air Jet Loom:
It is a shuttle-less loom that uses an air jet to propel the yarn through the shed at very high speeds. The air jet weaving machine combines high performance with low manufacturing requirements. It has an extremely high insertion rate. Due to its exceptional performance, air jet machines are used primarily for the economical production of standard fabrics, covering a wide range of styles. Meanwhile, more and more niches and special fabric segments are covered; heavy cotton fabrics such as denim, terry fabrics, glass fabrics, etc.

air jet loom
Figure 1: Air jet loom

Air jet filling insertion is the simplest way of inserting the filling yarn which probably explains why air-jet weaving machines are one of the most popular machines in the market today.

Parts of Air Jet Loom and Their Functions in Weft Insertion:

parts of air jet loom
Figure 2: Parts of air jet loom

1) Tensioner: Additive disk type tensioner is used for weft insertion which maintain proper tension in the weft yarn.

2) Weft Break Sensor: It is an electric sensor which detect any weft break in the region between weft package and accumulator and automatically stop the loom in case any weft break.

3) Accumulator: It is advice which fitted between weft package and main nozzle that unwinds a predetermined length of weft from the package and store it in the form of no. of coils on a cylindrical drum. This yarn then fed in to insertion device.

4) Stopper: It is an electronically controlled electromagnetic device integrated along with the accumulator. Its function in releasing the yarn at starts of insertion and stop it at the end of insertion.

5) Balloon Breaker: It is fitted just after accumulator, its function is to separate the balloon formation. So as to reduce as ballooning tension as well as minimize the tension fluctuation. It is generally used for coarser yarn.

6) Fixed Main Nozzle: Its function is to form the air jet from compressed air with the required velocity and acceleration characteristics and project it in a proper direction in to air guide channel.

7) Relay Nozzle Or Sub Nozzle: Fitted in series along the sley. It creates an additional air flow in the direction of air jet. So as to comensate the loss of air velocity.

8) Profile Reed: Here the reed is profiled. So as to form a guide channel which guide the air jet as well as weft during insertion.

9) Weft Cutter: It is cam operated device fitted in the region between the moveable main nozzle and the reed at picking side. Its function is to gripping and cutting the weft after every pick at around beat-up.

10) Air Guide Channel: It is formed on the reed. Its function is guiding and confining the free expansion of the air jet in order to maintain the velocity over larger distance as possible.

11) Weft Detector: It is an optical device fitted at the end of reed at the receiving side. Its function is to check the arrival of weft at the receiving side. In case of late arrival or miss pick, then it sense and automatically stopped the loom.

12) Stretch Nozzle: Located just beside the weft detector .It supplement the effect of enhanced stretching action on the weft by the closely spaced relay nozzle at the end of insert ion. So as to prevent the chance of weft recoiling due to action of stopper.

13) Selvedge Cutter: Located at the receiving side. It is an electronically operated mechanical device which cut the weft yarn extending between fabric and auxiliary selvedge. So as to separate the auxiliary selvedge which is passed out as a waste.

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