Application of Nanotechnology in Textile Wet Processing

Application of Nanotechnology in Textile Wet Processing

Aravin Prince Periyasamy
Asst Professor, Dept of Textile Technology,
D.K.T.E. Textile Engineering Institute, Kolhapur, India


Nanotechnology has been booming in many areas, including materials science, mechanics, electronics, optics, medicine, plastics, energy, electronics, and aerospace. Nanotechnology is a growing interdisciplinary technology often seen as a new industrial revolution. It has been playing extraordinary role over the past few decades in the functional finishing of different textile materials. Nowadays, it is playing an extraordinary role in the functional finishing of textiles and polymers. It has sought to improve existing material performances and develop fibers, composites, and novel finishing methods. Application of nanoparticles has imparted novel characteristics to textiles such as flame retardation, UV-blocking, water repellence, self-cleaning, and antimicrobial properties. In this paper, application of nanotechnology in different field of textile wet processing.

Nanotechnology in Textile Wet Processing
Fig: Nanotechnology in Textile Wet Processing

Characteristics of Nano Finished Textile Materials

  1. Their protective layer is difficult to detect with the naked eye.
  2. Saving time and laundering.
  3. This technology embraces environmental friendly properties.
  4. The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat.
  5. Nano processed products are toxic free
  6. Garments are good looking and more durable than ordinary material
  7. Manufacturing cost is low, adding value to the products.

Application of Nanotechnology in Wet Processing:

A. Nano dyeing

B. Nano finishing

  1. Hydrophobic finish
  2. Self cleaning effect
  3. UV-protection
  4. Anti-Microbial
  5. Anti-Pollen
  6. Odour fights finish
  7. Flame retardant finishing

A. Nano Dyeing:
Nano dyeing is done for the following reason:

  1. To reduce the electricity, heating, process time in cotton textile dyeing process.
  2. To reduce the water quantity in cotton textile dyeing process.
  3. To decolorized the effluent water less TDS out, with textile drain itself.
  4. This process do not required any other harmful chemicals.
  5. Begin to earn big money on process time.

B. Nano Finishing:

1. Hydrophobic finish

  • This nano finish originally named as “Nano care”& marketed by “Nano Tex”
  • Hydrophobic surface can be produced mainly in 2 ways
  • By creating rough structure on a hydrophobic surface
  • By modifying a rough surface using materials with low surface energy
  • Fluro carbon finishes constitute an important class of hydrophobic finish

2. UV Finish

  • Rayleigh‟s scattering theory predicts that in order to scatter UV radiation between 200 and 400 nm, the optimum particle size will be between 20 and 40 nm.
  • A thin layer of titanium dioxide is formed on the surface of the treated cotton fabric which provides excellent UV-protection; the effect can be maintained after 50 home laundering.
Treated cotton and Untreated cotton
Fig: Treated cotton and Untreated cotton

3. Anti Microbial Finish

  • It is a well known fact that the growth of bacteria and microorganisms in food or water is prevented when stored in silver vessels due to antimicrobial properties.
Silver nano particle
Fig: Silver nano particle
  • Silver ions have broad spectrum of anti microbial activities.
  • The method of producing durable silver containing antimicrobial finish is to encapsulate a silver compound or nano particle with a fiber reactive polymer like poly (styrene co-maleic anhydride).
  • Instead of perfume , we may use thermo sensitive pigment, thermal storage materials or pharmaceutical preparation in the inner core.
  • The treated yarns showed effective antimicrobial activity against various bacteria, fungi.

You may also like: Antibacterial Finishes on Textile Materials

4. Anti-Pollen Finish

  • Miyuki keori co of Japan is marketing anti-pollen fabrics
  • The smoothness of the finish on the surface and the anti-static effect does not let pollen or dust to come close
  • This finish is given by the polymer which have anti-static or electro conductive composition, Eg. Fluroalkyl –( meth acrylate polymers.)
  • It is used in coats blouses, gloves, & etc.

5. Odour Fight Finish

  • A Taiwanese nano-tech firm Green shield has created underwear using nanotechnology that fights odour.
  • This underwear fiber release undetectable negative ions & infrared rays that destroy odour -causing bacteria.
  • The negative ions inhibits the reproduction of bacteria
  • Far infrared rays causing all the individual atoms being vibrated at a higher frequency which speeds up the metabolism & the elimination of wastes
  • Tourmaline –a natural mineral emits negative ions when low level radiation comes in contact with oxygen, CO2 & water molecules in the air-promotes electrolytic dissociation.
  • This nano finish can eliminate
    • 99.99% of bacteria,
    • 90% of odour,
    • 75 % sticky moisture

6. Flame-Retardant Finish

  • Nyacol nanotechnologies, has been the world leading supplier of colloidal Antimony pentoxide which is used for flame retardant finish on textiles.
  • It contain colloidal antimony pent-oxide with halogenated flame retardants. The ratio of halogen to antimony 5:1 to 2:1
  • 10 parts of nycolin 1550 parts of aqueous dispersion, with pH 7 and add 40 parts of H2O and sufficient ammonia add for bring out pH 9, mix this with 50 parts of rubber latex and spray to the Non-woven material.

You may also like:

  1. Modern Applications of Nanotechnology in Textile Finishing
  2. Recent Innovations in Nano-finishing in Textiles
  3. Nanotechnology in Textiles: A New Field for Research and Development
  4. Self Cleaning Textiles: New Concept of Textile Finishing

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