Fabric Manufacturing Process: Woven, Nonwoven and Knit

Fabric Manufacturing Process: Woven, Nonwoven and Knit

Md. Amir Khasru
B.Sc. in Textile Engineering
Department of Yarn Engineering, SARSTEC
Email: santo.amirkhasru2002@gmail.com


The word fabric comes from “fabrique” of French origin. This word refers to meaning “to build, make, construct, create, etc.” In Textile, fabric refers to something that helps to cover our body or another thing. In general, that which helps to cover or cover an object is called fabric. In different mechanical methods yarn and fiber are turned into fabric. Interweaving (interlacing or interlacement), interlooping and intertwisting are the main types of fabric manufacturing. There are three types of fabric woven, nonwoven, knit fabric.

  1. Interweaving: Mainly, woven fabrics are in this category. Intersection or interlacement of two warp ends and weft ends (picks or filling), which cross and interweave at right angles to each other.
    Woven Fabric
    Figure 1: Woven fabric

    Woven fabric, plain weave structure
    Figure 2: Woven fabric, plain weave structure
  2. Interlooping: Interlooping of yarn used to produce knit fabrics. Interloping in the warp direction of the fabric is for warp knitted fabric and in the weft direction for weft knitted fabric. These two are the main types of knit fabric.

    Weft and warp knitted Interlooping
    Figure 3: Weft and warp knitted interlooping
  3. Intertwining and twisting: Braided fabric is an example of an Intertwining and twisting process. The twisting of three and more than three threads in the right angle is called Intertwining.

    Braided fabric with intertwining and twisting
    Figure 4: Braided fabric with intertwining and twisting

Nonwovens: In the word nonwoven, we can understand that the fabric is made by either interloping or interlacing and intertwining. Nonwoven fabric is made from fiber directly by some mechanical process or operations. In nonwoven fabric, fibers are bonded by a mechanical, chemical or thermal process.

nonwoven fabric
Figure 5: Nonwoven fabric
Fabric at a glance
Figure 6: Fabric at a glance

Woven Fabric Manufacturing Process:
Woven fabric is mainly made by interlacement of warp and weft threads. Warp yarn and weft yarn are generally prepared in different ways. For weaving, warp and weft yarn needs to be prepared and turned into the desired cone or package.

Woven Fabric Manufacturing process
Figure 7: Woven fabric manufacturing process

Weaving preparation: Spinning industries supply their yarn package but the weaving industry can’t use these yarns. Before starting weaving, the yarns of prepared depends on the use. In weaving, warp threads passed with more tension and friction compared to weft threads. Warp and weft yarns are subjected to different conditions and requirements during weaving.

Winding: Winding is the major preparation process for weft yarn. Warp preparation includes winding, warping, sizing, and drawing in or tying in. The transformation of yarn from one package to another package is called winding. For further processing, a Suitable yarn package is produced in winding. Unwinding zone, tension and cleaning zone, and winding zone are three main steps of winding. Yarn from the spinner’s package passed through the yarn guide. After the yarn guide yarn entered into tensioning and cleaning zone. The tension device creates tension on the yarn to test the yarn if it is suitable for weaving and the yarn cleaner device cleans the yarn surfaces then the yarn passes through a stop motion feeler and finally yarn is warped into the yarn package in winding zone.

Schematic of the winding process
Figure 8: Schematic of the winding process

Warping: Warp and weft yarn preparation is the most important step for weaving. In warping, warp ends are warped into a beam for the next process. The industrial warping process mainly has two types

  1. Sectional warping (Indirect or conical drum or dresser warping )
  2. Beam warping or direct warping (preparatory beam warping)

Sizing: Sizing is the process of adding some materials on the surface of the yarn to change warp yarn properties. In the loom, the warp yarns face too much friction and tension. The objects of sizing are below.


  • To increase strength.
  • To reduce yarn hairiness.
  • To increase the abrasion resistance.
  • To increase weaveability.

Drawing-in: A process after warping and sizing, passing the warp ends through the eye of heald wire and dent of the reed is called drawing-in. This process consists of two different processes drafting and denting.

Drafting: Passing the warp thread ends through the eye of the heald wire of the loom.

Denting: Passing the warp end through the dent of the reed of the loom.

Looming: Before starting the weaving on a loom, the necessary steps needed to prepare the loom for weaving such as drafting, denting, drawing, pinning, gaiting and knotting are called looming.

Looming process
Figure 9: Looming process

Tying-in: The procedure known as “tying-in” involves cutting the ends of the old warp beam, which is now a fabric beam, and attaching the ends of the new warp beam to the matching ends of the old beam.

Knitted Fabric Manufacturing Process:

Flow Chart of the Knitted Fabric Manufacturing process
Figure 9: Flow chart of the knitted fabric manufacturing process

Knitting is a process of fabric making by intermeshing the loops of yarn or interloping of yarn. Weft knitting & warp knitting are two types of interloping of yarns. If the loop of yarn is formed horizontally then it is called weft knitting and if it is formed in a vertical direction then called warp knitting.

Weft knitting process
Figure 11: Weft knitting process
Warp knitting process
Figure 12: Warp knitting process

Course & Wales: The horizontally connected loops are called courses and the vertically connected loops are called wale.

Course and wale
Figure 13: Course and wale

Stitch length: The length of a full knitted yarn loop is called stitch length. The needle loop and sinker loop are also known as stitch length or loop length.

Course length: The total length of yarn needed to produce a complete knitted course is called a course length.

Course length = No. of loops per course * Stitch length

Course length = No. of needles * Stitch length

Stitch density: The number of loops in a unit area is called stitch density.

Single jersey & double jersey: Single jersey or plain fabric is produced by one set of needles and double jersey fabric is produced by two sets of needles.

Cylinder: A cylinder is a round-shaped or circular steel bed having grooves/ tricks/ cuts on its outer sides on which the needles are mounted. The maximum diameter of a cylinder is 46 inches.

Dial: The dial is the steel bed on the upper side used in double-knit circular machines.

Machine gauge or Needle gauge: The number of needles in inches of a needle bed is called machine gauge. The distance between two close needles is called needle pitch.

Machine gauge = 1/Needle Pitch

Notation: Notation is a symbolic representation of a knitting repeat sequence. It is used to describe the knitted fabric design and structure.

Single Jersey Circular Knitting Machine
Figure 14: Single jersey circular knitting machine
Double Jersey Circular Knitting Machine
Figure 14: Double jersey circular knitting machine

Braided Fabric Manufacturing Process:
A thing like rope, made by interweaving three or more threads in a diagonally overlapping pattern is known as braided fabric. It’s one kind of women’s hair-twisting pattern. The main applications of the Braided fabrics are in shoelaces, ropes, industrial belts, surgical sutures, cables, and so on.

Flow Chart of Braided Fabric Manufacturing process
Figure 15: Flow chart of braided fabric manufacturing process

Nonwoven Fabric Manufacturing Process:
Nonwoven is a kind of fabric that is directly made from a fiber web. There are many methods to produce nonwoven fabrics. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical are common processes of nonwoven fabric production.

Flow Chart of Nonwoven Fabric manufacturing
Flow Chart of nonwoven fabric manufacturing

Image Courtesy:

  1. https://textilelearner.net/difference-between-woven-and-knitted-fabric/
  2. https://www.textileflowchart.com/2021/03/flow-chart-of-looming-process-in-weaving.html
  3. Knitting Technology; David J Spencer
  4. https://fujiantaifan.diytrade.com/
  5. https://peteks.com.tr/
  6. https://www.tappi.org/content/divisions/net/tutorial.pdf


  1. https://www.etymonline.com/word/fabric
  2. Understanding Textile for Marchandiser, Dr. Shah Alimuzzaman Belal
  3. Hand book of weaving, Sabit Adanur.
  4. Knitting Technology; David J Spencer
  5. Knitting Fundamentals; Anbumani
  6. Lecture sheet, Engr. Humayun Kabir Sir
  7. https://www.textileadvisor.com/2019/10/drawing-in-process-weaving-process.html
  8. https://www.textileflowchart.com/
  9. https://textilelearner.net/braiding-and-braided-fabrics/
  10. https://thenonwovensinstitute.com/
  11. https://www.tappi.org/content/divisions/net/tutorial.pdf

You may also like: Different Weft Insertion Techniques in Weaving

Share this Article!

Leave a Comment