Determination of Fibers Composition in a Blended Fabric

Last Updated on 08/04/2021

Name of the Experiment:
Determination of different fibers composition in a blended fabric

Objective:

  1. Determination the composition of different fibers in the given sample (blended material).

Theory:
To determine the composition of different fibers in a blended fabric we have to apply chemical test. Because there may consist of both thermoplastic and non-thermoplastic fibers. So we cannot different them by physical test such as burning etc. But in chemical test if it dissolves in a specific chemical we can identify that fiber portion of fabric. Now if we weight the sample before dissolving in chemical and after dissolving in chemical we can easily find out the composition of them in the fabric sample.

Determination of Fibers Composition

At last we will apply chemical for the rest fibers to identify it. Suppose the total weight of the fabric sample = a and after dissolving one portion we find the rest weight = b. Then we can find the composition as follow:

…………………………………………………….a-b
Fiber composition of 1st portion = ————– x 100%
……………………………………………………..a

……………………………………………………..b
Fiber composition of 2nd portion = ————– x 100%
……………………………………………………..a

Atmospheric condition:

  1. Wet condition: 26°C. & Dry condition: 30°C.
  2. Difference between wet and dry bulb = 30°C – 26°C.  = 4°C
  3. So, relative humidity (RH) = 67 %

Working Procedure:

1. At first cut the fabric into equal size of samples.

2. Then take weight of them.

3. Now test with chemicals as follow:

Sample no.  Chemical          Behavior           Remark
      1.    Phenol    Dissolve one portion         Polyester
      2.    H2SO4    Dissolve one portion         Polyester
      3.    HNO3    Dissolve one portion         Polyester

4. Again take weight of the residual samples and test with chemicals as follow:

Sample no.  Chemical             Behavior              Remark
       1.    H2SO4   Dissolve residual portion               Cotton
       2.    HNO3   Dissolve residual portion               Cotton

Calculation:

Total weight of fabric sample = 210 mg

Weight after dissolving one portion = 90 mg

Weight of residual portion = 210-90 = 120 mg

…………………………………………120
Composition of polyester = ————- x 100%
…………………………………………210

= 57.14%

…………………………………….90
Composition of cotton = ————- x 100%
……………………………………210

= 42.86%

Result:
The blended fabric consists of cotton and polyester. Here cotton is 42.86% and polyester is 57.14%.

Conclusion:
I would like to thank our respected teacher for the important instructions. I am also grateful to our lab assistants for their kind help. This experiment helps me to know about the fibers composition in a polyester cotton blended fabric that is very important for textile testing. I think this will be very helpful in my future life.

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