Denim is more than just a cotton fabric; it inspires the hearts of students of history, planners, adolescents, movie stars, columnists and authors. Actually denim is a sturdy fabric that is typically cotton and is twilled, having colorful warp and white filler threads. Denim is a cotton twill fabric and the weft passes under two or more warp yarns. Denim was traditionally colored blue with the indigo dye with ring dyed effect. Through the years, denim has evolved and has become one of the most fashionable items in the fashion and textile industry.
Denims are stylish wear for everyone. Today’s denim fashion comes in an assortment of hues, styles and textures. In textiles, fashion and apparel trends have been dominated by the introduction of faded and torn looks, in which one imperative example is faded blue jeans. For applying faded and torn looks on denim different types of washing machine are used. In this article, I will discuss different types of denim jeans washing machine manufacturers.
In the past decade, there have been many developments in denim washing machines. Many washing machine manufacturers offer various kinds of denim washing machines. I have taken information from different resources. For more information related to the recent development in denim washing machines, please visit the manufacturers’ Websites.
List of Denim Jeans Washing Machine Manufacturers:
TOLKAR has established in 1969 as a family business regarding to produce textile washing machines and industrial laundry machines in city of Izmir, TURKEY. From the very first date, continuous development, better quality and customer satisfaction have made up a principle by TOLKAR where at the present day constitutes from 3 splendid innovative production factories in Izmir Ataturk Industrial Zone, distributorship of the leader washing machine manufacturers of their sectors for supplementary products.
The Turbo Pintora garment dyeing machine from Avantec S.R.L., Italy. It has different operating volumes, 1300 L (Turbo Pintora 1.3), 2200 L (Turbo Pintora 2.2), 3100 L (Turbo Pintora 3.1), 4100 L (Turbo Pintora 4.1) and 5000 L (Turbo Pintora 5.0). The machine is driven by two motors to provide maximum basket rotation flexibility and has a self-balancing system with special electro- pneumatic shock absorbers to ensure perfect stability during the centrifuging phase. It has special fixed and removable beaters to ensure the most appropriate movement of the garments. The Turbo Pintora allows very low liquor ratios. The washing machine manufacturers can be equipped with a color kitchen which includes: (1) a tank for chemical products introduction; (2) a tank for dissolving and introducing dyestuff and (3) a tank for dissolving and dosing auxiliaries. All of these systems are controlled by a microprocessor.
The Super Pintora is a new dyeing system that reduces the dyeing time; consequently, there is a considerable reduction in the relevant dyeing costs of about 30%. The Super Pintora can work at a very low bath ratio, between 1:4 and 1:5, and can avoid those annoying problems of abrasion and mechanical friction of the garments that industrial washers often have.
The OLA LIMPIA washing machine is an industrial ‘Superspin’ machine for readymade garments. It is particularly suited to water washes, ‘stone wash’ treatments with enzymes and chemical treatments. In this washing machine, a microprocessor permits manual and automatic control of all machine functions. Solarium is constituted by a ‘double mannequin’, one opposite to the other, rotating 180° and a drying area, in which the 3D effects are fixed at a maximum temperature of 80 °C. After that, complete polymerisation of the resin is done in a traditional static oven, the versatility of this machine allows easy and simple interchangeability (less than 1 min) of the manikins, to perform, besides the traditional horizontal moustaches, also new 3D effects like the new diagonal moustaches or analogous applications on jackets and sports jackets.
Diablo laser machine with software permits change of parameters like power, frequency and speed to reproduce on the garment any kind of effect, like personalized drawing, images, trading marks, whisker effect and stripes.
BRONCO S.R.L., Italy, provides different machines for washing and dyeing of readymade garments. The rotary machine model LCOs are machines designed for all kinds of treatments on readymade garments such as enzyme stone wash, rinsing, softeners, milling and dyeing. Front loading washing machines are particularly designed for treatments such pumice stone wash.
BLASTEX, Brazil, offers different jeans finishing systems. The BPR100 Compact model is a single head compact form thermic press. The BPR150 Simple model has a single Teflon covered head and large format thermic press. The BPR200 Twin compact is a double Teflon covered head and compact form thermic press. The BPR series is operated with manually actuated heat form linked to a digital time and temperature control. The BPA 700 Thermic is a double head thermic press for wrinkle effects. This machine is fully automatic, controlled with pneumatic actuation with digital programmable-logic controller to program, time, speed and temperature. The C1 is a dextramer with pneumatic auctioning that produces popping or popcorn effect with quality and repeatability. The X2 is a hand sanding equipment with vertical double dummy hand sanding system, rotating and articulated dummies, equipped with trigger action and rotating sandpaper cartridges brush supported by ergonomic balancer with more productivity and less effort. The L2eL2 automática is a horizontal hand sanding dummy with two rotating articulated and inflatable legs. It is easily hand manipulated with automatic pressure controller for inflatable dummies. The J1 works in vertical and horizontal positions. The dummy rotates, allowing brushing on both sides. The movements and inflation are controlled by a pedal. The Laser Smart 250 is a laser engraving machine operated with 250W plus auto focus correction mirrors marking technology. The laser machine is equipped with height and printing area digital adjustment. The P3 Dry Spraying Cabin consists of twin dry filter cartridges with easy filter cleaning system so that 98% of potassium permanganate can be retained. This machine is operated with pneumatic ergonomic pedal trigger for faster application and higher production speed. The series WAVE is a washing machine suitable for all kinds of washing processes on ready-made garments.
CIBITEX S.R.L., Italy, offers denim finishing plants which consist of machines for finishing and achieving dimensional stability on denim fabric.
CIBITEX denim finishing lines lead to a flawless result as regards final dimensional stability. To obtain a flawless shrinkage and facilitate the shrinkage of this fabric, it is necessary that moisture penetrates into the cotton fibre with a residual moisture percentage (before entering the shrinkage unit) ranging from 13% to 15%. The best system to achieve this moisture content is full impregnation followed by drying adjusted by a moisture control system which ensures the requested moisture percentage.
GFK, Spain (a brand under Jeanologia), developed high technology solutions for garment finishing. The MAORI is customised dyeing machine which allows the user to achieve a number of different garment dye effects on wool, cotton and its blends. The MARGARITA is an automatic machine for industrial use aiming at obtaining 3D effects (3D scratch) such as round shaped moustache and back knee effect on trousers. Its unique technology offers various applications with the features: (1) a single operator working the machine; (2) the whisker form is made in 5 s; and (3) production up to 40–50 garments per hour. The SCRUNCH is a high speed garment packing machine for tie-dye, tie-bleach and other localised permanent wrinkling. The POPPING is a high performance fabric punching machine to create personalised break points on garments in automatic mode with the features of: (1) automatic mode adjustment; (2) needle penetration adjustment; (3) needle holding mould; and (4) easy garment handling. The KNEEMATIC is a machine for permanent fabric widening to produce authentic bombed knee effect. It is the first and unique technology to create vintage knee shape on denim and twills. The TECA is a machine for creating authentic 3D wrinkles on any area of the garment (moustache, back knee, waist belt, bottom, etc.). The FGM is a fabric grinding machine with the fastest and most controllable technology of GFK for automated warp removal to achieve vintage worn effects and breaks on garments.
JEANOLOGIA, Spain, presents the Plug & Design system for laser treatment which allows creating and improving the art of jeans without waste of time in preproduction. The Rotatex Technology is a rotating table with transition in 1.3 s with absolute precision in laser treatment. The G2 is a color fading technology which can be considered as an ecological production process without (1) any toxic emissions to the atmosphere; (2) any water consumption; (3) any toxic dumping; (4) any chemicals consumption; and (5) large energy consumption (reduce more than 65% energy for 100 kg of fabric).
Laser System Technology:
Laser System Technology, Turkey offers the LSTTEX laser system which provides efficient, fast and cost effective solutions for all localized abrasion needs on garments. Creating authentic looking garments with whiskers, chevrons, damages and 3D effects is easy with the system. Multipreview mode and continuous printing is used and while one design is being printed, a second design is visually marked on the printing area with a second marking head so that the operator can exactly position the next garment to the subsequent printing area. This feature virtually eliminates manipulation time and thus increases production. Automatic filed size and height adjustment are available and therefore no lenses are needed to be changed during operation.
OMI Washing Machinery:
OMI Washing Machinery, Italy, offers automatic systems with modules for washing, stone washing, spinning and drying with automatic garment loading and unloading. The LSCO 360 TSM High Speed Machine is a machine for garment dyeing with loads varying from 40 to 200 kg. This system is made of a motor driven pump with variable pressure, which picks up the dip from the machine, filters it and injects it with adjustable pressure through 500 nozzles distributed and mounted on the axis and also on the two lateral sides of the rotating basket of the machine. The radial injection takes place on the centre and on the length of the basket towards the external side and from the lateral sides to the opposite ones, creating a cross injection of the dip that permits a high dyeing penetration on garments in a short time. The machine is extremely versatile even with very delicate garments.
TUPESA Maquinaria Textile:
TUPESA, Spain, offers a wide range of machines for garment processing. For the washing process, washers model Stone is available from TUPESA which is a frontal machine for washing and treating garments with enzymatic and stone wash processes. The TUPESA wrinkle free curing ovens (e.g. WF-80-Gas) are specially designed for the processes and finished garments that need a curing process at high temperature. Its exclusive design guarantees a constant and homogenous circulation of the internal air, obtaining identical temperature in all its compartments. TUPESA makes several models of curing ovens with capacities from 10 to 80 garments and with production of 40–80 garments per hour at temperatures of up to 180 °C. The TUPESA curing ovens have a movable hangers system, divided in one or two internal departments depending on the model. The heating system can be operated by electricity or by gas. TUPESA also provides different types of manikins for treating and brushing jeans like trousers or jackets which is easy to use and install.
An independent blowing system is used with fast and simultaneous air discharge from both legs through a special wide opening drainage valve. Manual or pneumatic system clutches with blocking system in every position.
TONELLO S.R.L., Italy, offers garment finishing equipment. The Professional Compact series are garment dyeing machines with a high speed and jet system. The garment dyeing machines are equipped with variable speed, extraction as well as automatic balancing system. They work with open basket and with the high speed dyeing system.
The Brush Robot Model E4 has been developed for automatic brushing of jeans, that is to give them a ‘used look’ effect. This system is a valid alternative to the sand blasting or chemical processes. It is equipped with four brushes, two in front and the other two on the rear part of the jeans. To reduce down time, the machine is complete with two mannikins and so loading and unloading operations can be performed while the machine is working. The Brush Robot Model E5 is used for automatic brushing of jeans that is to give them a ‘used look’ effect. This system is also a valid alternative to the sand blasting or chemical processes. Different from the Brush Robot Model E4, this machine works with one brush controlled by an anthropomorphic robot. One column, placed in the centre of the machine, supports a rotating device with three mannikins. One mannequin is in a loading and unloading position and the other two are in working positions. Different effects can be obtained using different types of brushes and changing their working conditions.
The Bohemia is an automatic spraying system and resin spraying can be done manually or automatically for producing: (1) spray wash effect and (2) 3D effect. This system can also create special ‘3D Real Look’ effects on the garments. The spraying on garments like jeans, jackets and shirts, etc., of chlorine derivatives, pigments and resins has the function to create on garments themselves special effects and particular finishing.
TONELLO has added a new manual equipment brand that sprays and brushes jeans, jackets and shirts, etc. The equipment mainly includes a spraying booth and accessories for manual spraying and brushing. Spraying booths are of dry type with ‘paint stop’ filtering panels which can be easily removed for cleaning or replacing. They can be equipped with manikins from one to four. The booths are supplied with a differential pressure switch to signal filter clogging, lighting and electric board as well as with one or two centrifugal fans in relation to their sizes. The LASER BLAZE is a machine for treating denim and dyed garments with a laser. The action of the laser produces variations in intensity of color and so produces a greater variety of different imaginative effects, images and designs. The intensity of the results depends as much on the power of the laser as on the characteristics of the fabric.
MACTEC, Italy, offers a wide range of washing equipment for denim garments. The Margherita machine HD and Oven 2000 provides the path for 3D whiskers process in which 24 dummies are available in the Margherita machine. The ‘Icelite’ process makes use of carbon dioxide as a finishing agent to achieve similar effect as potassium permanganate spraying. In addition, the spray cabin system provided by MACTEC equips with weighing system to measure the exact quantity of resin sprayed on each part of denim garments.
Denim washing machines play an important role and, depending on the market requirements, these machines can develop uniform color fading or appearance effects in a short time. In the future, new sustainable types of denim washing techniques may be developed; however, some problems still need to be addressed, such as color consistency, piece-to-batch reproducibility, yellowing and staining.
Founder & Editor of Textile Learner. He is a Textile Consultant, Blogger & Entrepreneur. He is working as a textile consultant in several local and international companies. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia.