Rope or Yarn Splicing | Types of Yarn Splices | Method of Yarn Splicing

Last Updated on 25/01/2021

An Overview of Yarn Splicing

Bhavdip Paldiya
Dept. of Textile Technology
Sarvajanik College of Engineering & Technology, Surat, India


Yarn Splicing:
Splicing is the forming of a semi-permanent joint between two threads or two parts of the same rope or yarn by partly untwisting and then interweaving their strands. In order to get rid of the problems caused by knots, practically all modern winding machines are equipped with a yarn splicing technique which joins the two ends of yarn without knotting.

Splicing of yarn
Fig: Splicing of yarn

Splices can be used:

  • To form a stopper at the end of a line,
  • To form a loop or an eye in a rope, or
  • For joining two ropes or yarns together.

Types of Rope or Yarn Splices:
There are different types of splice.

  1. Back Splice
  2. Cut Splice
  3. Eye Splice
  4. Ring Splice
  5. Chain Splice
  6. Horseshoe Splice
  7. Long Spice

1. Back Splice:

  • A splice where the strands of the end of the rope or yarn are spliced directly back into the end without forming a loop.
  • It is used to finish off the end of the rope to keep it from fraying.
  • The end of the rope with the splice is about twice the thickness of the rest of the rope.
  • With nylon and other plastic materials, the back splice is often no longer used; the rope strands are simply fused together with heat to prevent fraying.
Back Splice
Back Splice

2. Cut Splice

  • A splice similar to the eye splice.
  • It is typically used for light lines (e.g., the log-line) where a single splice would tend to come undone, the rope being frequently wet.
  • It makes a very strong knot.
  • A cut splice is a join between two ropes, made by side splicing the ends slightly apart, to make an eye in the joined rope or yarn which lies shut when the rope is taut.
Cut Splice
Fig: Cut Splice

3. Eye Splice

  • A splice where the working end is spliced into the working part forming a loop.
Eye Splice
Fig: Eye Splice

4. Ring Splice

  • Attached the working end of a rope to a ring or clew.
Ring Splice
Fig: Ring Splice

5. Chain Splice

  • Attached the working end of a rope to a chain.
Chain Splice
Fig: Chain Splice

6. Horseshoe Splice

  • A cut splice where the two sides of the loop are of unequal length.
Horseshoe Splice
Fig: Horseshoe Splice

7. Long Spice

  • It is used to join two rope ends forming one rope the length of the total of the two ropes.
  • The long splice, unlike most splice types, results in a splice that is only very slightly thicker than the rope without the splice, but sacrifices some of the strength of the short splice.
  • It does this by replacing two of the strands of each rope end with those from the other, and cutting off some of the extra strands that result.
Long Spice
Fig: Long Spice

Method of Spicing:
In two ways splice is generated.

  1. Fusion Splicing Method
  2. Mechanical Splicing Method

1. Fusion Splicing Method

  • As mentioned previously, fusion splicing is a junction of two or more optical fibers that have been permanently affixed by welding them together by an electronic arc.
  • Fusion splicing is the act of joining two optical fibers end-to-end using heat. The goal is to fuse the two fibers together.

Four basic steps to completing a proper fusion splice:
Step 1: Preparing the fiber – Strip the protective coatings, jackets, tubes, strength members, etc. leaving only the bare fiber showing. The main concern here is cleanliness.

Step 2: Cleave the fiber – Using a good fiber cleaver here is essential to a successful fusion splice. The cleaved end must be mirror-smooth and perpendicular to the fiber axis to obtain a proper splice.

Step 3: Fuse the fiber – There are two steps within this step, alignment and heating. Alignment can be manual or automatic depending on what equipment you have. The higher priced equipment you use, the more accurate the alignment becomes. Once properly aligned the fusion splicer unit then uses an electrical arc to melt the fibers, permanently welding the two fiber ends together.

Step 4: Protect the fiber – Protecting the fiber from bending and tensile forces will ensure the splice not break during normal handling

2. Mechanical Splicing Method
Mechanical splicing is an optical junction where the fibers are precisely aligned and held in place by a self-contained assembly, not a permanent bond. This method aligns the two fiber ends to a common centerline, aligning their cores so the light can pass from one fiber to another.

Four steps to performing a mechanical splice:
Step 1: Preparing the fiber – Strip the protective coatings, jackets, tubes, strength members, etc. leaving only the bare fiber showing. The main concern here is cleanliness.

Step 2: Cleave the fiber – The process is identical to the cleaving for fusion splicing but the cleave precision is not as critical.

Step 3: Mechanically join the fibers – There is no heat used in this method. Simply position the fiber ends together inside the mechanical splice unit. The index matching gel inside the mechanical splice apparatus will help couple the light from one fiber end to the other. Older apparatus will have an epoxy rather than the index matching gel holding the cores together.

Step 4: Protect the fiber – the completed mechanical splice provides its own protection for the splice.

Tips for Better Spices:

  • Thoroughly and frequently clean your splicing tools. “Excessive” cleaning of your fiber and tools will save you time and money down the road.
  • For Fusion splicing, you need more precise cleaver to achieve the exceptional low loss (0.05 dB and less). Maintaining your cleaver by following manufacturer instructions for cleaning as well as using the tool properly will provide you with a long-lasting piece of equipment and ensuring the job is done right the first time.
  • Fusion parameters must be adjusted minimally and methodically (fusion splicing only). Dirty equipment should be your first check and them continue with the parameters. Fusion time and fusion current are the two key factors for splicing.

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  4. Yarn Count Measurement System

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