Resist Style of Printing on Reactive Dyed Cotton Using White Resist and Color Resist Style Printing

Resist Style of Printing on Reactive Dyed Cotton Using White Resist and Color Resist Style Printing

Rushikesh Digambar Patil
Department of Textiles (Textile Chemistry)
DKTE’S Textile and Engineering Institute, Ichalkaranji, India
Intern at Textile Learner
Email: rushikeshpatil23052002@gmail.com

 

Introduction:
Resist Printing refers to printing on fabric that leads to an undyed pattern within the shape of the resist applied on a dyed background. It’s a negative printing method.

In this fabric printing method, a resist is applied on the material which will keep the dye from penetrating the fabric. Once you dye the material, the dye will color only the areas not blocked by the resist.

Resist may be anything which will ‘resist’ or block the penetration of dye on the material surface.

In the resist style of printing, resisting the development of dye on the ground at the printed portion by the action of the resisting agent. It is applicable in the case of dyes applicable for two or more two separate chemical processes.

Resist Style of Printing for Cotton:
Steps for different dyes-

A. Reactive dye:
Two-step application, hence acid can be used as a resisting agent for reactive dye. Stable organic acids like Citric acid, Tartaric acid can be used as a resisting agent. Also, sodium phosphate and aluminum sulphate can be used.

Steps-

  1. Exhaustion using salt
  2. Fixation using alkali

B. Vat dye:

  1. Insoluble (parent) vat dye Conversion into leuco vat dye (solubilized form)
  2. Exhaustion
  3. Leuco(solubilized) vat dye Conversion into parents vat dye (insoluble form)

C. Azoic color:

  1. Naphtholation
  2. Diazotization base
  3. Coupling of naphthols

D. Direct dye:
Resist style of printing is not applicable for direct dye because the direct dye is only a single step of application i.e Exhaustion

Ingredients-

In printing paste: Resisting agent

  • Thickener
  • Solvent

In padding liquor: Reactive Dye

  • Oxidizing agent
  • Mild Alkali

Types of resist style printing with reactive dye:

  1. White resist on reactive ground
  2. Color resist on reactive ground

Explanation –

A. White resist style of printing:
In this method, the ground is dyed with reactive dye and at the design portion the penetration of dye is avoided by using a resisting agent like wax. Hence, the design or printed portion remains White and the region other than the print is dyed.

White resist style printing
Figure 1: White resist style print

In the above printing, the ground is colored with one color and the design portion is kept white.

B. Color resist style printing on the reactive ground:
In this method, the ground is dyed with reactive dye, and the design region is dyed with other dye. The ground has different colors and printing designs have different color.

Color resists style print
Figure 2: Color resists style print

In the above printing, the ground is dyed with dark blue color, However, the design is colored with orange color.

Resisting agents selection:

1. In case of white ground effect: The resisting agent is taken in a such a way that dye on the ground will not fix i.e resisting agent have opposite conditions of fixation than fixation of Dye on ground.

2. In case of color resist effect: Dye and a resisting agent will be fixed in the same condition.

Chart for selection of dye on the ground and dye in the paste –

Dye on ground (White resist effect) Resisting agent Fixation condition used in both Effects Dye in resist paste for color resist effect
Reactive dye Acid, oxidizing agent Solubilized vat dye
Solubilized vat dye Alkali Reactive dye
Vat dye Acid, oxidizing agent Solubilized vat dye
Solubilized vat dye Alkali, reducing agent Vat dye

3. In the white resist effect, if the ground color is a reactive dye, we should choose a resisting agent that is contrary to reactive dye fixation, i.e. reactive dye fixes in alkaline settings, but we choose a resisting agent that fixes in acidic conditions.

4. Under the color resists effect, if the ground color is a reactive dye, we used a resisting agent that is fixable in acidic conditions.

Other dyes in resist paste should be fixed in the same conditions as the resisting agent for fixing during printing, i.e. dye in color resist effect and resisting agent should be fixed in acidic conditions. As a result, solubilized vat dye is chosen for printing effects that are fixed under acidic conditions.

Dyes Fixation conditions Opposite conditions
Reactive dye Alkaline condition Acidic condition
Vat dye Alkaline condition Acidic condition
Solubilized vat dye Acidic condition Alkaline condition

5. Resisting agent should be opposite fixation conditions-

  1. Reactive dye on ground or dyed: The resisting agent should be fixed in acidic conditions. Dye in color resist paste should be fixed in Acidic conditions.
  2. Vat dye on ground or dyed: The resisting agent should be fixed in Acidic conditions. The dye used in color resist paste should be fixed in acidic conditions
  3. Solubilized vat dye on ground or dyed: The resisting agent should be fixed in Alkaline conditions. The dye used in color resist paste should be fixed in alkaline condition

Methods of printing –

  1. First print method: Fabric is printed initially with resist paste followed by drying and padding through reactive dye solution.
  2. Overprint method: Fabric is initially padded with reactive dye solution followed by drying and printing with resist paste.

Formulation:

A. White resist effect on Reactive dyed ground-

Resist paste –

Resist paste Quantity in gram
Citric acid 50 gm
Water 50 gm
Thickener Remaining
Total 1000 gm

Pad liquor –

Pad Liquor Quantity in gram
Reactive dye X gm
Urea 30 to 50 gm
Resist salt 7 to 10 gm
Sodium bicarbonate 50 to 60 gm
Hot Water 250 to 300 gm
water Remaining
Total 1000 gm

White resist effect using two methods-

  1. First print method
  2. Overprint method

Explanation-

1. Process: First print method

  1. White resist paste is used to print the fabric at first.
  2. The prints are dried at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100°C.
  3. The printed cloth is padded with a reactive dye solution using a one-dip-one-nip procedure and appropriate expression.
  4. The fabric is dried at 80-100°C right away.
  5. Steam for 8-10 minutes at 102-105°C.
  6. A series of hot and cold washes are performed on the fabric.
  7. 2 GPL non-ionic soap is used for soaping.

The process sequence of the first print method –

Printing with resist paste

Drying

Padding with dye solution

Drying

Steaming for 8-10 min

Washing and Soaping

2. Process: Over Print method

  1. First, the fabric is padded with a reactive dye solution and appropriate expressiveness.
  2. It is dried at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100°C.
  3. Finally, white resist paste is used to print the padded fabric.
  4. It is dried at a temperature of 80-100°C.
  5. Steam for 8-10 minutes at 102-105°C.
  6. A series of hot and cold washes are performed on the fabric.
  7. Soaking takes 15-20 minutes at a boil with 2 GPL non-ionic soap, followed by washing and drying.

The process sequence for the overprint method-

Padding with dye solution

Drying

Printing with resist paste

Drying

Steaming for 8-10 min

Washing and Soaping

B. Color resist effect on Reactive dyed ground:
The resisting agent for reactive dye is acid. The paste contains acid, hence the dye which requires acidic condition for its development should be added to the printing paste. e.g. Solubilised vat dye

Formulation –

Resist paste Quantity
Solubilized vat dye X gm
Glycerine 40 gm
Hot water 300 to 350 gm
Citric acid 100 gm
Ammonia vanadate 15 gm
Thickener(gum tragacanth) Remaining
Total 1000 gm

 

Pad liquor Quantity
Reactive dye X gm
Lactic acid 2 gm
Hot water 300 gm
Sodium chlorate 10 gm
Gum tragacanth (6%) 50 gm
Water Remaining
Total 1000 gm

Process: Overprint method

1. The fabric is first padded with a reactive dye solution and a suitable expression.

2. It is dried at temperatures ranging from 80 to 100°C.

3. After that, a color resists paste comprising solubilized vat dye is applied to the padded cloth.

4. It is dried at 120°C. Because an oxidizing agent is present in the printed region and a catalyst is added to the paste, solubilized vat dye gets fixed after drying at this temperature.

Conditions –

5. Then the fabric is padded through an alkaline solution containing salt for fixation of reactive dye

Recipe Quantity
Sodium hydroxide (72°TW) 20 ml
Glauber salt 200 gm
Common Salt 100 gm
Total 1000 gm in water

6. Steaming is done at 102-105°C for 20 -30 seconds.

7. Fabric is washed with a series of hot and cold washes.

8. Soaping is done with 2 GPL non-ionic soaps at a boil for 15-20 min followed by washing and drying.

The process sequence of the overprint method –

Padding with dye solution

Drying

Printing color resist paste

Drying

Padding through Alkali and Steaming for 20-30 seconds

Washing and Soaping

Washing and drying

Conclusion:
It will produce the bright turquoise blue shade prints which is difficult to produce by other methods. Its principal is simple as to block development of dye on ground. So, it will produce very good effects for both color resist as well as white resist.

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