Analysis of Woven Fabric: Necessity and Importance

Last Updated on 02/05/2021

Analysis of Woven Fabric: Necessity and Importance

Mofizur Rahaman Akash
B.Sc in Textile Engineering
World University of Bangladesh


Analysis of woven fabric:
Fabric analysis is an important activity in the production of a new design for garment or apparel industry. Indeed fashion changes every minute in the world market and it is necessary to plan accordingly. Responding to the changes in the market it is this activity prepares the designer to plan for the new strategies. In fabric analysis, the fabric under production will be designed based on the specific end use. Fabric analysis gives all details from sample data to manufacturing data.

Woven fabrics are produced by interlacement of two sets of yarns perpen­dicular to each other, that is, warp and weft forming a stable structure. The fabric-forming process or fabrication method contributes to fab­ric appearance, texture, and its suitability for end use.

The woven fabrics are produced by interlacing two orthogonal sets of yarns, that is, warp yarns that are longitudinally arranged and weft yarns that are crosswise placed. The warp yarn is raised or lowered alternatively in a specific pattern over the weft yarn. This specific pattern for the distri­bution of interlacement is termed as the weave design of the fabric. While using CAD, the weave design is represented as an orthogonal array of binary numbers. For example, if warp yarn is over the weft yarn at crossover area, it is denoted by “1” and by “0” for the opposed case. In this way, an infinite number of weaves can be formed. There are three fundamental weaves known as the basic weaves, namely plain, twill, and satin/sateen weaves.

Points to be considered during analysis of woven fabric:
Following are the points to be kept in mind while analyzing a single layered woven fabric:

  1. Check whether the fabric is grey or finished or stitched to size or hemmed to size
  2. Identify the class to which it belongs
  3. Identify the face and back
  4. Check is it dyed or printed at one side or double side, if printed at one side, the analysis will be resumed from face side only
  5. Measure the dimensions such as length, the width of fabric randomly at various points (select at least five observations), and report the average
  6. Measure the selvedge width and count the number of selvedge ends
  7. Identify the weave of selvedge
  8. Mark the warp direction on fabric by an arrow for all future warp parameter measurements.
  9. If in a piece of fabric where no selvedge is available, proceed as follows to locate the warp in the piece of fabric
    • Ravel a small length of the sample in any direction and count the number of ends with either pick glass or densimeter. If the number of ends are more, the direction is marked as warp
    • If in a piece of fabric threads/inch is the same in both the directions, then check for reed marks in the cloth and that direction is marked as warp
  10. In the long piece of fabric, using densimeter measure the ends/inch and picks/inch at random places at least for five times and report the average
  11. Measure the count of warp and weft using Beesley balance. Repeat the experiment for at least five times and report the average value
  12. Measure the crimp of warp and weft using crimp tester
  13. Ravel the threads and analyzed the working of an end passing through different picks and mark the design on the point paper
  14. After locating the repeat, apply the rules of drawing and find the number of heald shafts required and compare with the total number of ends in the fabric considering the full width of the fabric. Sometimes as per design only two heald shafts are needed but the number of ends may be more and in such cases, number of heald shafts to be calculated on the number of ends
  15. Make the calculations for manufacturing data


  1. To find and sketch the weave structure of the given fabric sample.
  2. To know the specification of the fabric.
  3. To identify the drafting & lifting plan of the weave.


sample of woven fabric


  1. Counting Glass
  2. Needle
  3. Beasley’s Balance
  4. GSM Cutter/ Scissor
  5. Graph Paper

Analysis of woven fabric:

1. Face Side & Back Side: The face side & back side are almost same. The face side is slightly lighter & smoother than the back side. So it is very difficult to indicate face side & back side.

2. Direction of warp & weft: Direction of both warp & weft are indicated by arrow mark by the side of the sample.

3. Thread Density:

  • EPI: Provided sample of EPI is 38
  • PPI: Provided sample of PPI is 24

4. Yarn Count:

  • Warp: 8
  • Weft: 14

5. GSM Calculation:
Say, 1 sq. inch fabric weight = 0.0905gm
1×1 sq. inch fabric weight = 0.0905gm
Here, 1 inch = 0.0254meter

i.e., 0.0254×0.0254 sq. meter fabric weight = 0.0905gm

1×1sq. meter fabric weight = —————————————-
………………………………………….0.0254 x 0.0254

= 141 m2

6. Weave Plan:

Weave Plan
Fig: Weave Plan

In graph the gaps between lines are considered according to x-axis as weft threads & according to y-axis as warp threads. The up threads are indicated by filling up the gaps & the down threads without filling up the gaps.

7. Drafting Plan: According to British System the drafting is drawn on the top of the weave plan. Here normal draft is used to draft the plan.

8. Lifting Plan: The lifting plan is drawn at the right side of the weave plan.

9. Repeat Size: The repeat size of this fabric is 2×2.

10. Weave Design: The weave design of this fabric is plain weave.

Importance for woven fabric analysis:
Following are the objectives and importance of woven fabric analysis:

  1. To determine the particulars of warp and weft such as count, twist, diameter, blend composition, type of fiber, and so forth.
  2. To determine the details of fabric such as cover factor, fabric quality index. Fabric weight factor, fabric characteristics, and special features based on specific end use.
  3. To determine the manufacturing details such as loom type and loom data (total number of heald eyes/shaft, pick wheel, reed count, warp length, the width in reed, and so forth).
  4. To plan for specific chemical processing of woven fabric by applying special finishes.
  5. To study the formability and tailorability of the proposed new fabric.
  6. To examine the ‘drape’ and ‘drop’ behavior of woven garment.
  7. To plan the large or mass customization of the new design by integrating the facilities of CATD (Computer Aided Textile Design) (computeraided woven fabric garmenting using cut planning) auto laying, automated knitting, sewing (special finishing if any), care labelling and packing and shipping.
  8. To test the pulse of the consumer or market through the launch of fashion shows.
  9. To plan for regular production with corrections if necessary based on the feedback from consumer following market research.

In this experiment, we have to learn about the thread density, yarn count, GSM & design (weave plan, drafting plan, lifting plan & repeat size) of woven fabric. This is help to analysis of woven fabric.

You may also like:

  1. Woven Fabric Structure and Analysis
  2. Analysis of Plain Woven Fabric Specification
  3. How to Calculate GSM of Woven and Knitted Fabric
  4. Decorative Methods for Fabric Construction
  5. What is Cover Factor? | Cover Factor of Different Types of Woven Fabric
  6. Basic Elements of Woven Fabric Design
  7. Analysis of Regular Weft Rib Woven Fabric Structure

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